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Carbon isotope-constrained seasonality of carbonaceous aerosol sources from an urban location (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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Number of Authors: 9
2017 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 122, no 9, 4903-4923 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in northern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh is a major source of carbonaceous aerosols in South Asia. However, poorly constrained seasonality of their sources over the IGP leads to large uncertainty in climate and health effects. Here we present a first data set for year-round radiocarbon (C-14) and stable carbon (C-13)-based source apportionment of total carbon (TC) in ambient PM10 (n = 17) collected from an urban site (Kanpur: 26.5 degrees N, 80.3 degrees E) in the IGP during January 2007 to January 2008. The year-round C-14-based fraction biomass (f(bio-TC)) estimate at Kanpur averages 777% and emphasizes an impact of biomass burning emissions (BBEs). The highest f(bio-TC) (%) is observed in fall season (October-November, 856%) followed by winter (December-February, 804%) and spring (March-May, 758%), while lowest values are found in summer (June-September, 69 +/- 2%). Since biomass/coal combustion and vehicular emissions mostly contribute to carbonaceous aerosols over the IGP, we predict C-13(TC) (C-13(pred)) over Kanpur using known C-13 source signatures and the measured C-14 value of each sample. The seasonal variability of C-13(obs)-C-13(pred) versus C-14(TC) together with air mass back trajectories and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer fire count data reveal that carbonaceous aerosols in winter/fall are significantly influenced by atmospheric aging (downwind transport of crop residue burning/wood combustion emissions in the northern IGP), while local sources (wheat residue combustion/vehicular emissions) dominate in spring/summer. Given the large temporal and seasonal variability in sources and emission strength of TC over the IGP, C-14-based constraints are, thus, crucial for reducing their uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol budgets in climate models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 122, no 9, 4903-4923 p.
Keyword [en]
radiocarbon, stable carbon isotope, Indo-Gangetic Plain, South Asia, carbonaceous aerosols, biomass burning emissions
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144828DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025634ISI: 000402039000009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-144828DiVA: diva2:1121303
Available from: 2017-07-10 Created: 2017-07-10 Last updated: 2017-07-10Bibliographically approved

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Bikkina, SrinivasAndersson, AugustGustafsson, Örjan
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