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Drosophila as a Model for Human Diseases-Focus on Innate Immunity in Barrier Epithelia
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
Number of Authors: 3
2017 (English)In: Fly Models of Human Diseases / [ed] Leslie Pick, San Diego, CA: Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 121, 29-81 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila. This review describes the current knowledge on Drosophila as a model for human diseases, with a special focus on innate immune-related disorders of the gut, lung, and skin. The discovery of antimicrobial peptides, the crucial role of Toll and Toll-like receptors, and the evolutionary conservation of signaling to the immune systems of both human and Drosophila are described in a historical perspective. Similarities and differences between human and Drosophila are discussed; current knowledge on receptors, signaling pathways, and effectors are reviewed, including antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen species, as well as autophagy. We also give examples of human diseases for which Drosophila appears to be a useful model. In addition, the limitations of the Drosophila model are mentioned. Finally, we propose areas for future research, which include using the Drosophila model for drug screening, as a validation tool for novel genetic mutations in humans and for exploratory research of microbiota-host interactions, with relevance for infection, wound healing, and cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Diego, CA: Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 121, 29-81 p.
Series
Current Topics in Developmental Biology, ISSN 0070-2153 ; 121
Keyword [en]
Drosophila, Innate immunity, Barrier epithelia, Mucosal immunity antimicrobial peptides, TLRs, PGRPs, Gut immunity, Lung diseases, Skin infections
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145292DOI: 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2016.07.002ISI: 000403544600002PubMedID: 28057304ISBN: 978-0-12-802904-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-145292DiVA: diva2:1128342
Available from: 2017-07-25 Created: 2017-07-25 Last updated: 2017-07-25Bibliographically approved

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