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Compositions of glass in proximal tephras from eruptions in the Azores archipelago and their links with distal sites in Ireland
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Number of Authors: 3
2017 (English)In: Quaternary Geochronology, ISSN 1871-1014, E-ISSN 1878-0350, Vol. 40, 120-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Azores archipelago is one of the most active volcanic areas in the North Atlantic region, with approximately 30 eruptions during the last 600 years. The geochemical composition of associated tephra-derived glass is, however, not well characterized. This study presents major element compositions of glass shards from five major eruptives on the Azores: a trachybasaltic eruptive on the island of Faial (Capelinhos AD, 1957) and four explosive trachytic eruptives on the island of Sao Miguel (Fogo A c. 5600 cal yrs. BP, Sete Cidades c. AD 1440, Fogo AD 1563 and Furnas AD 1630). The major element compositions suggest that tephras from three active stratovolcanoes on Sao Miguel, Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas, can be distinguished from one another using bi-plots of FeOtot vs. TiO2 and FeOtot vs. CaO. Late Holocene tephras found on Ireland have previously been attributed to eruptions occurring on Jan Mayen but possess a strong geochemical similarity to proximal tephras from the Azores, especially those from the Furnas volcano. The similarity of the proximal tephras on Sao Miguel, especially Furnas AD 1563 and Furnas AD 1630 and distal tephras in Ireland is demonstrated by strong similarity coefficients (>0.95) and the closeness of major element composition. The dominant wind direction over the Azores is favourable for tephra dispersal to western Europe and we suggest that at least three tephras found in Ireland were erupted from the Furnas volcano, and that trachytic tephras erupted from explosive eruptions on Sao Miguel have a potential to contribute to the construction of a European-wide tephrostratigraphic framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 40, 120-128 p.
Keyword [en]
Azores archipelago, Sao Miguel, Faial, EMPA, Tephra, Glass composition, Ireland
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145262DOI: 10.1016/j.quageo.2016.07.006ISI: 000404702300012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-145262DiVA: diva2:1128422
Available from: 2017-07-25 Created: 2017-07-25 Last updated: 2017-07-25Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, HansWastegård, Stefan
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