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Human Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Halogenated Flame Retardants via Inhalation and Dust Ingestion in a Norwegian Cohort
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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Number of Authors: 62017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 14, p. 8176-8184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we estimated human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclo-dodecanes (HBCDDs), and several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) via inhalation and dust ingestion. Sixty indoor stationary air samples, 13 personal air samples, and 60 settled dust samples were collected from a Norwegian cohort during winter 2013. PBDEs showed the highest median concentration in dust (1200 ng/g), followed by EFRs (730 ng/g) and HBCDDs (190 ng/g). The PBDE concentrations in dust were mainly driven by BDE-209 and those of EFRs by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate. EFRs predominated in stationary air samples, with 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate and 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-1,2-dibromocyclohexane having the highest median concentrations (150 and 25 pg/m(3) (sum of alpha- and beta-isomers), respectively). Different profiles and concentrations were observed in personal air samples compared to the corresponding stationary air samples. In relation to inhalation exposure, dust ingestion appears to be the major exposure pathway to FRs (median total exposure 230 pg/kg bw/d, accounting for more than 65% of the total exposure) for the Norwegian cohort. The calculated exposure due to air inhalation was substantially lower when the stationary air concentrations were used rather than personal air concentrations (43 pg/kg bw/d versus 130 pg/kg bw/d). This suggests that other exposure situations (such as outdoors or in offices) contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure, which cannot be included by using only a stationary air sampling technique. The median and 95th percentile exposures for all target FRs did not exceed the reference dose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 51, no 14, p. 8176-8184
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145895DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02114ISI: 000406086100047OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-145895DiVA, id: diva2:1134840
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. What contributes to human body burdens of halogenated flame retardants?: An experimental approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What contributes to human body burdens of halogenated flame retardants?: An experimental approach
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Flame retardants (FRs) are chemicals added to a broad range of consumer products such as textiles, electrical and electronic equipment, furniture and building material to meet flammability requirements. Most of these chemicals are additives that can continuously leach out from the applied products during usage. FRs are studied because of their abundance in indoor environments and concerns about their impact on human health. The restrictions on many brominated FRs have resulted in a need for their replacement with a variety of emerging halogenated FRs (EHFRs). Humans are exposed to these chemicals mainly through dust and diet ingestion, but there is still insufficient data about the relative importance of other exposure pathways. In this thesis, a Norwegian cohort of 61 adults (age 20-66, 16 males and 45 females) was studied for their exposure to legacy and emerging HFRs. Duplicate diet, stationary air, personal air, settled dust, hand wipe and serum samples were collected from the participants and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and EHFRs. External exposures via dietary intake, air inhalation, dust ingestion and dermal exposure (in pg/kg body weight/day) were estimated from the measured concentrations. The intake values were then compared to elucidate which of these exposure pathways were most important for the Norwegian cohorts’ exposure to specific HFRs. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for most of the PBDE congeners and EHFRs, whereas dust ingestion contributed significantly to the exposure of some less volatile HFRs. Inhalation exposure was negligible for most of the target HFRs except for those with higher volatility, such as tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) and 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz). Dermal exposure seems to be a significant exposure pathway for HBCDDs and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) but the relevance of hand wipes to represent total dermal exposure remains uncertain. Overall, the median and 95th percentile total intakes for all target HFRs did not exceed the regulatory reference doses (RfD). Estimated serum concentrations were calculated from total intakes from all exposure pathways using a one compartment pharmacokinetic model and these were compared to measured concentrations. The estimated median serum BDE-47 and BDE-153 concentrations were slightly over-estimated by a factor of 5.5 and 4.3, respectively whereas BDE-197 and -209 were under-estimated by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to the measured concentrations. Statistical analysis suggested that age, number of electronic equipment at home, certain dietary habits, hand washing and house cleaning frequency were possible contributors to HFR exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2018. p. 33
Keywords
halogenated flame retardants, air, dust, hand wipes, duplicate diet, serum, human exposure
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155572 (URN)978-91-7797-177-1 (ISBN)978-91-7797-178-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved

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