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The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, A6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) of Type IIn is dominated by the interaction of SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium (CSM). Some SNe IIn (e.g. SN 2006jd) have episodes of re-brightening (''bumps'') in their light curves. We present iPTF13z, a Type IIn SN discovered on 2013 February 1 by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). This SN showed at least five bumps in its declining light curve between 130 and 750 days after discovery. We analyse this peculiar behaviour and try to infer the properties of the CSM, of the SN explosion, and the nature of the progenitor star. We obtained multi-band optical photometry for over 1000 days after discovery with the P48 and P60 telescopes at Palomar Observatory. We obtained low-resolution optical spectra during the same period. We did an archival search for progenitor outbursts. We analyse the photometry and the spectra, and compare iPTF13z to other SNe IIn. In particular we derive absolute magnitudes, colours, a pseudo-bolometric light curve, and the velocities of the different components of the spectral lines. A simple analytical model is used to estimate the properties of the CSM. iPTF13z had a light curve peaking at Mr <~ -18.3 mag. The five bumps during its decline phase had amplitudes ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 mag and durations between 20 and 120 days. The most prominent bumps appeared in all the different optical bands, when covered. The spectra of this SN showed typical SN IIn characteristics, with emission lines of Hα (with broad component FWHM ~ 103 - 104 km s-1 and narrow component FWHM ~ 102 km s-1) and He I, but also with Fe II, Ca II, Na I D and Hβ P Cygni profiles (with velocities of ~ 103 km  s-1). A pre-explosion outburst was identified lasting >~ 50 days, with Mr  -15 mag around 210 days before discovery. Large, variable progenitor mass-loss rates (>~ 0.01 MSun yr-1) and CSM densities (>~ 10-16 g cm-3) are derived. The SN was hosted by a metal-poor dwarf galaxy at redshift z = 0.0328. We suggest that the light curve bumps of iPTF13z arose from SN ejecta interacting with denser regions in the CSM, possibly produced by the eruptions of a luminous blue variable progenitor star.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 605, A6
Keyword [en]
supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: iPTF13z, galaxies: individual: SDSS J160200.05+211442.3
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147273DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629906ISI: 000412231200072OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-147273DiVA: diva2:1143033
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2017-11-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bumpy light curves of interacting supernovae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bumpy light curves of interacting supernovae
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A supernova (SN) is the explosive destruction of a star. Via a luminous outpouring of radiation, the SN can rival the brightness of its SN host galaxy for months or years. In the past decade, astronomical surveys regularly observing the sky to deep limiting magnitudes have revealed that core collapse SNe (the demises of massive stars) are sometimes preceded by eruptive episodes by the progenitor stars during the years before the eventual SN explosion. Such SNe tend to show strong signatures of interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium (CSM) deposited by the star before the SN explosion, likely by mass-loss episodes like the ones we have started to observe regularly. The complex CSM resolved around certain giant stars in our own galaxy and the eruptions of giant stars like η Car in the 19th century can be seen in this context. As the SN ejecta of an interacting SN sweep up the CSM of the progenitor, radiation from this process offers observers opportunity to scan the late mass loss history of the progenitor. In this thesis, interacting SNe and eruptive mass loss of their progenitors is discussed. The SN iPTF13z (discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF) is presented. This transient was followed with optical photometry and spectroscopy during 1000 days and displayed a light curve with several conspicuous re-brigthenings ("bumps"), likely arising from SN ejecta interacting with denser regions in the CSM. Around 200 days before discovery, in archival data we found a clear precursor outburst lasting >~ 50 days. A well-observed (but not necessarily well understood) event like SN 2009ip, which showed both precursor outbursts and a light curve bump, makes an interesting comparison object. The embedding of the (possible) SN in a CSM makes it hard to tell if a destructive SN explosion actually happened. In this respect, iPTF13z is compared to e.g. SN 2009ip but also to long-lived interacting SNe like SN 1988Z. Some suggestions for future investigations are offered, to tie light curve bumps to precursor events and to clarify the question of core collapse in the ambiguous cases of some interacting SNe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för astronomi, Stockholms universitet, 2017. 61 p.
Keyword
iPTF13z, supernova, SN, circumstellar medium, CSM, SN Type IIn, intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147289 (URN)
Presentation
2017-05-18, FB42, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2017-09-27Bibliographically approved

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Nyholm, AndersSollerman, JesperTaddia, FrancescoFremling, ChristofferRoy, Rupak
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