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Wind Speed and Sea State Dependencies of Air-Sea Gas Transfer: Results From the High Wind Speed Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS)
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Number of Authors: 132017 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 122, no 10, p. 8034-8062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A variety of physical mechanisms are jointly responsible for facilitating air-sea gas transfer through turbulent processes at the atmosphere-ocean interface. The nature and relative importance of these mechanisms evolves with increasing wind speed. Theoretical and modeling approaches are advancing, but the limited quantity of observational data at high wind speeds hinders the assessment of these efforts. The HiWinGS project successfully measured gas transfer coefficients (k(660)) with coincident wave statistics under conditions with hourly mean wind speeds up to 24 m s(-1) and significant wave heights to 8 m. Measurements of k(660) for carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) show an increasing trend with respect to 10 m neutral wind speed (U-10N), following a power law relationship of the form: k660CO2 approximate to U10N1.68 and k660dms approximate to U10N1.33. Among seven high wind speed events, CO2 transfer responded to the intensity of wave breaking, which depended on both wind speed and sea state in a complex manner, with k660CO2 increasing as the wind sea approaches full development. A similar response is not observed for DMS. These results confirm the importance of breaking waves and bubble injection mechanisms in facilitating CO2 transfer. A modified version of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment Gas transfer algorithm (COAREG ver. 3.5), incorporating a sea state-dependent calculation of bubble-mediated transfer, successfully reproduces the mean trend in observed k(660) with wind speed for both gases. Significant suppression of gas transfer by large waves was not observed during HiWinGS, in contrast to results from two prior field programs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 122, no 10, p. 8034-8062
Keywords [en]
air-sea gas exchange, carbon dioxide, dimethylsulfide, gas transfer model, eddy correlation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-149859DOI: 10.1002/2017JC013181ISI: 000415893300015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-149859DiVA, id: diva2:1164784
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Brumer, S. E.Prytherch, John
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