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Establishing marine protected areas in Sweden: Internal resistance versus global influence
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Number of Authors: 22018 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 1-14Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the past decade, marine protected areas (MPAs) have become an increasingly used tool for science-based conservation and adaptive management of marine biodiversity and related natural resources. In this review paper, we report on rather complete time-course series (55 years uninterrupted) focusing on comparison of the strong difference, in number and area, in establishing marine (56 MNRs) and terrestrial (4284 TNRs) nature reserves in Sweden versus marine (7001 MPAs) and terrestrial (132742 TPAs) protected areas globally. Sweden appears to follow the overall global time trends. The large backlog of MPAs in relation to TPAs is due to several possible reasons, such as (i) unclear marine jurisdiction, (ii) marine conservation policies and programs developed later than terrestrial, (iii) higher costs for marine conservation management, (iv) conflicts in marine conservation, especially the fishery, and (v) the general public's historically weak awareness of the status of the marine environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 47, no 1, p. 1-14
Keywords [en]
Conservation, Marine nature reserve, Protected area, Sustainable use
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151171DOI: 10.1007/s13280-017-0932-8ISI: 000416833500001PubMedID: 28756565OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-151171DiVA, id: diva2:1179545
Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Marine environmental governance and management in Sweden from the 1960s until today: Did the actions suit the needs?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine environmental governance and management in Sweden from the 1960s until today: Did the actions suit the needs?
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates how governance and management relevant to the use and protection of the marine environment has emerged in Sweden from the 1960s until today. Focus is on how the modern environmental and nature conservation administration in Sweden developed the legal and organizational frameworks needed for proper management. More specifically – did the available tools suit the needs?

The Swedish National Physical Planning system, initiated in the mid-1960s, pioneered the concept of ecology as basis for physical planning in Sweden. This introduced environmental considerations in societal planning, inter alia, through special national guidelines (geographical and for certain activities) for local authority planning. The National Physical Planning system strengthened the cooperation between local and regional (county) authorities and with central governmental bodies. With some delay, marine spatial planning became the instrument for coordinating and balancing competing demands on coastal and marine environments.

Marine environmental governance and management are commonly linked to intergovernmental agreements, usually in the form of international conventions. Measures against pollution and other threats to the marine environment, as well as conservation of its natural resources and biodiversity, become more efficient when countries work together through global or regional organizations, rather than each country is acting on its own (Article I). However, it should be noted that in practice many intergovernmental agreements are less binding than first appears.

While marine pollution began to be addressed and remedied in the 1980s, it was only in the 2000s that marine nature conservation and the establishment of marine protected areas began to receive increased attention and effective action (Article II).

Marine nature conservation and fisheries often conflict, as the establishment of a marine protected area commonly involves a restriction on some ongoing fishing. Usually, such conflicts are related to differences in the objectives between marine protected areas established for environmental and fishery purposes, which often leads to strongly conflicting opinions on how to manage them (Articles II–III).

Initial environmental and nature conservation efforts focused on measures against land, air and freshwater pollution, and the conservation of terrestrial environments. Excepting inner coastal areas, the open marine environment was not a focus of Swedish marine research although ecosystem research began early in the Baltic Sea. However, by the mid-1980s large-scale effects of pollution also on the open seas along the Swedish west coast, had become apparent and required environmental management actions (Article IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2018. p. 50
Keywords
International programmes on ocean and seas, Baltic Sea, Kattegat-Skagerrak, Marine spatial planning and management
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155538 (URN)978-91-7797-322-5 (ISBN)978-91-7797-323-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted.

Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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