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Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Number of Authors: 32018 (English)In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 165, no 2, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58 degrees 48.19', 17 degrees 37.52'; 65 degrees 10.14', 23 degrees 14.41'; 58 degrees 21.67', 24 degrees 30.83'). Using individuals with known family structure, we investigated within population variation of the reaction norm (genotype and salinity interaction) as a means to measure adaptive capacity. Our main finding was that low salinity has a detrimental effect on development time, the additive effects of high temperature and low salinity have a negative effect on survival, and their interaction has a negative effect on hatching success. We observed no variation in survival and development within populations, and all genotypes had similar reaction norms with higher survival and faster development in higher salinities. This suggests that there is no single genotype that performs better in low salinity or high salinity; instead, the best genotype in any given salinity is best in all salinities. Genotypes with fast development time also had higher survival compared to slow developing genotypes at all salinities. Our results suggest that E. affinis can tolerate close to freshwater conditions also in high temperatures, but with a significant reduction in fitness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 165, no 2, article id 30
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-153656DOI: 10.1007/s00227-017-3279-6ISI: 000424326200001PubMedID: 29391649OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-153656DiVA, id: diva2:1188461
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Local adaptation in life history traits and population size estimation of aquatic organisms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local adaptation in life history traits and population size estimation of aquatic organisms
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human society is dependent on healthy aquatic ecosystems for our basic needs and well-being. Therefore, knowledge about how organisms respond and interact with their environments is pivotal. The Baltic Sea is highly affected by human activity and future populations living in its catchment area will have to respond to multiple set of changing abiotic and biotic predictors.

The first two papers of this thesis focus on local adaptation, adaptive capacity, and the response to changing temperature, salinity, and food conditions of different Eurytemora affinis populations, a ubiquitous zooplankton species in the Baltic Sea. Development time of zooplankton is an important trait and relates to how fast a population can increase in number. Common garden experiments showed that E. affinis populations from warmer southern areas had shorter development time from nauplii to adult at high temperature compared to populations from colder areas, which indicates an adaptation to temperature. The adaptation was explained by a correlation in development time between higher temperatures, 17 and 22.5 °C, while development between a colder temperature, 12 °C, and the two higher temperatures was uncorrelated. This implies that adaption to short development time at high temperature is unlikely for populations originating from cold temperatures. Hence, global warming will be disadvantageous for northern, compared to southern populations. However, development time is heritable and may change under selection, and may improve the competitive advantage of northern populations. The population with the shortest development time had comparably lower survival at high temperature and low food quality. This represents a cost of fast development, and emphasizes the importance of including multiple stressors when investigating potential effects of climate change.

E. affinis inhabits a broad range of habitats from an epi-benthic life in freshwater lakes and river mouths, to pelagic life in estuaries. Paper III aims to link the morphology of different populations to habitat and resource utilization. Results showed that the individuals of a pelagic population were smaller in size and more slender, compared to a littoral population of larger and more fecund individuals. In experimentally constructed benthic and pelagic algae communities, the littoral population produced less offspring than the pelagic population when filamentous benthic diatoms were included. This suggests that filaments disturb their feeding and that littoral populations of E. affinis stay epi-benthic. As pelagic fish typically select larger prey, living close to the bottom probably allows the littoral population to grow larger than the pelagic. These results link morphology to habitat specialization, and show contrasting ecological effects of two E. affinis populations.

Paper IV focuses on the recreational angler’s potential role as a citizen scientist. The pike Esox lucius has a stabilizing role in ecosystems as a top consumer and is highly valued by recreational anglers in European lakes and estuaries. Results showed that recreational angling could be used to estimate population size and connectivity of E. lucius in spatial capture-recapture models. The only prerequisite is that anglers practice catch and release, retain spatial data, and take photos of their caught fish. These results show that data from recreational angling can be of potential use for fisheries managers and researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 50
Keywords
local adaptation, intraspecific variation, niche partitioning, life history, global warming, recreational angling, spatial capture–recapture
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162470 (URN)978-91-7797-446-8 (ISBN)978-91-7797-447-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-11, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved

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