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Vad uppmärksammar lärare i samtal om skrivbedömning? Svensklärares normer för beslut om summativ bedömning
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9999-3852
2018 (Swedish)In: Nordisk tidskrift för allmän didaktik, ISSN 2002-1534, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 34-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports on a qualitative study of Swedish teachers’ summative assessments of students’ writing in upper secondary school. Based on teacher group discussions, the study describes and analyses teachers’ expressions of norms when assessing and grading students’ writing in the subject of Swedish. Data consist of audio- and video recordings from three focus group discussions, comprising a total of 17 teachers. Topic analysis (Linell, 2001) is the method used to identify expressions of assessment norms in these discussions. The analysis reveals that these teachers’ summative assessments of students’ writing express two competing norms: a non-compensatory and a compensatory norm. The non-compensatory norm is expressed through perceptions that all text qualities must correspond to the same criteria. This means that shortcomings in texts are crucial for teachers’ summative assessments. The text qualities that primarily determine these decisions are language style and text structure. Meanwhile, the compensatory norm is expressed through perceptions that in summative aspects such as students’ age and writing instructions as well as students’ writing development and the national test must be considered. These competing assessment norms have a substantial impact on theses teachers’ decisions on summative assessments. The teacher groups show significant variation in the basis for their decisions regarding summative assessment of students' writing.

Abstract [sv]

I studien undersöks svensklärares normer för beslut om summativ bedömning av gymnasieelevers skrivande. Empirin består av ljud- och videoupptagningar från tre lärargruppers bedömningssamtal där sammanlagt 17 svensklärare deltar. Topikanalys (Linell, 2001) används för att beskriva och analysera vilka bedömningsnormer lärarna ger uttryck för i dessa samtal. Resultatet visar att lärarna framför allt uppmärksammar texters kvaliteter i relation till kunskapskravens betygssteg och uttrycker att samtliga textkvaliteter ska motsvara samma betygssteg för ett visst betygsomdöme. Detta innebär att lärarnas beslut om summativ bedömning i hög grad bestäms av brister i enskilda textkvaliteter, främst avseende texters språkliga stil och  strukturtextuppbyggnad. Denna bedömningsnorm fungerar icke-kompensatoriskt eftersom fördelar i texterna inte kan väga upp brister. Samtidigt uttrycker lärarna betydande hänsyn till bedömningsuppgifter och förväntningar på elevers skrivande i årskurs 1, elevers skrivutveckling under kurs och det nationella kursprovet i svenska 1. Dessa bedömningsnormer är oftast kompensatoriska genom att de används för att väga upp brister i texternas kvaliteter och visar sig få avgörande betydelse för lärarnas beslut om summativ bedömning. Lärargrupperna uppvisar sinsemellan en betydande variation avseende vad de grundar summativa bedömningar av elevers skrivande på och textkvaliteter jämförs snarare med varandra än uttrycks som grader av måluppfyllelse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 4, no 1, p. 34-55
Keywords [en]
Writing assessment, summative assessment, assessment norms, writing instructions
Keywords [sv]
Skrivbedömning, bedömningsnormer, summativ bedömning, svenskämnesdidaktik
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154225OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-154225DiVA, id: diva2:1195286
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Samtal om skrivbedömning: Lärares normer, beslut och samstämmighet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samtal om skrivbedömning: Lärares normer, beslut och samstämmighet
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Teachers' conversations about writing assessment : Norms, pedagogical decisions and grading
Abstract [en]

This thesis reports and discusses results from a qualitative study of Swedish teachers' writing assessment in upper secondary school. Based on teacher group discussions, the study investigates teachers' interactions, expressions of norms and decisions when assessing and grading students' writing in the subject of Swedish.

The aim of the study is to describe and analyze how teachers interact and what they pay attention to when discussing writing assessment. In relation to this aim the following three research questions were posed: (1) What characterizes the teachers' conversations about writing assessment? (2) What assessment norms do the teachers express? (3) What decisions do they make?

The theoretical perspectives are dialogical and pedagogical. From a dialogical point of view, the assessment conversations are considered as social acts where teachers in interaction collectively create meaning. Furthermore, the assessment conversations are considered as pedagogical, as a part of teachers' reflective work to discuss how to assess students' work and how to make decisions about further instructions and grading. The methods used to describe and analyze interactional patterns, expressions of norms and decisions in these assessment conversations are topic analysis and initiative-response-analysis.

The empirical data consists of audio and video recordings from three teacher groups' conversations about writing assessment, comprising a total of 17 Swedish teachers from three upper secondary schools. Data was also collected via a questionnaire with the individual teacher's grading of the students' writing and evaluation of the assessment conversations.

The results show that teachers' assessments of students' writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about student texts focus mostly on communicative quality, language style and text structure but also on content and the use of sources. The pedagogical decisions, on the other hand, almost exclusively focus on text structure and the use of sources.

The results also show that shortcomings in the students' texts are crucial for teachers' summative assessments. Meanwhile, the teachers also express that students' age, their writing development in the course and the national test must be considered. These assessment norms can be compensatory and have a substantial impact on these teachers' decisions on summative assessments. The teacher groups show considerable variation in the basis for their decisions regarding summative assessment of students' writing.

Finally, the teachers demonstrate a high degree of consistency within each teacher group when discussing summative assessment of students' writing. However, the assessments that individual teachers make after the discussions comply only to some extent with the group's decisions. The least degree of consistency was shown by the teacher group who, in the discussion, seemed the most consistent. Decision-making processes in these discussions are characterized by low intensity, where few assessment alternatives are being considered. The overall assessment consistency between the teacher groups was found to be low.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet, 2018. p. 89
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar i språkdidaktik - Dissertations in Language Education ; 11
Keywords
Writing assessment, social moderation, assessment norm, pedagogical decision, decision-making process, summative assessment, krivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfatttningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, summativ bedömning, beslutsprocesser
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154769 (URN)978-91-7797-236-5 (ISBN)978-91-7797-237-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-08, William Olsson-salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Accepted.

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-04-15 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved

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