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Immediate response mechanisms of Gram-negative solvent-tolerant bacteria to cope with environmental stress: cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids and outer membrane vesicle secretion
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Number of Authors: 4
2018 (English)In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 102, no 6, p. 2583-2593Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents. Thus far, two main short-term responses are known. On the one hand, a fast isomerization of cis into trans unsaturated fatty leads to a quick rigidification of the cell membrane, a mechanism known in some genera of Gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, a fast, effective, and ubiquitously present countermeasure is the release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the cell surface leading to a rapid increase in cell surface hydrophobicity and finally to the formation of cell aggregates and biofilms. These immediate response mechanisms just allow the bacteria to stay physiologically active and to employ long-term responses to assure viability upon changing environmental conditions. Here, we provide insight into the two aforementioned rapid adaptive mechanisms affecting ultimately the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 102, no 6, p. 2583-2593
Keyword [en]
Biofilm formation, Gram-negative cell wall, Surface hydrophobicity, Lipopolysaccharide layer, Membrane micro domains, Phospholipids
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154831DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8832-9ISI: 000426096500008PubMedID: 29450619OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-154831DiVA, id: diva2:1196645
Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved

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