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Measurements and Simulations of Single-Event Upsets in a 28-nm FPGA
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
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2017 (English)In: PoS - Proceedings of Science, ISSN 1824-8039, E-ISSN 1824-8039, Vol. 313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-event upsets in the configuration memory of the 28-nm Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA, used in the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter, have been studied. Results from neutron and proton irradiations at energies up to 184 MeV are presented and compared with previous experimental results. In order to gain information about the energy-dependence of the single-event upset cross section, a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulation of upset mechanisms in nanometric silicon volumes has been developed. The results from this model are shown to agree with the experimental data for both neutrons and protons. Knowledge about the energy dependence of the cross section and of the particle flux at the location of the front-end modules in PANDA enables better estimates of the mean time between failures in the electromagnetic calorimeter. At PANDA, a total neutron flux of 1·102 cm−2 s−1 at the location of the front-end modules is expected at the lowest antiproton beam momentum and a luminosity of 1·1031 cm−2 s−1, leading to a predicted Mean Time Between Failures of 47 ± 10 hours per FPGA in the electromagnetic calorimeter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 313
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-156544DOI: 10.22323/1.313.0096OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-156544DiVA, id: diva2:1209749
Conference
Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, California, 11 - 14 September, 2017
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Single event upsets: measurements and modelling of proton- and neutron-induced errors in a 28 nm SRAM-based FPGA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single event upsets: measurements and modelling of proton- and neutron-induced errors in a 28 nm SRAM-based FPGA
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Single event upsets are radiation-induced errors affecting electronic devices, which can cause corruption of processed data. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA experiment — a hadron-physics experiment currently under development — will employ Xilinx Kintex-7 field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in its readout electronics. During operation of the experiment, the FPGAs will be exposed to a high flux of radiation. Single-event upsets caused by protons and neutrons in the configuration memory of the FPGA have been studied through experiments and theoretical modelling. The device was irradiated with protons and neutrons of energies up to 184 MeV, and the corresponding single event upset cross sections were determined. In order to describe the energy-dependence of the cross sections, and to predict the error rates during operation of PANDA, a Monte Carlo model of energy-deposition mechanisms in silicon has been developed. The model predictions agree well with the experimental data for both protons and neutrons. Using the developed model, the mean time between failures due to neutrons during initial operation of PANDA is estimated to be 180 ± 40 hours per FPGA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm University, 2018. p. 81
Keywords
Single event upset, FPGA, radiation damage, Monte Carlo simulation, PANDA
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-156546 (URN)
Presentation
2018-06-14, B4:1059, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
2. Developments for the FPGA-Based Digitiser in the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developments for the FPGA-Based Digitiser in the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeters
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strong interaction between quarks and gluons is one of the fundamental interactions described by the standard model of particle physics. Systems of quarks bound together by the strong interaction are known as hadrons, of which the proton and the neutron are the most common examples. The theoretical framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is used to describe the strong interaction, but becomes increasingly difficult to use as the distance between the interacting particles increases. On the length scales relevant for hadrons, for instance, non-perturbative approaches to QCD have to be used. Experimental data are needed to verify these approaches. PANDA is one of the four experimental pillars of the upcoming FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. In PANDA, an antiproton beam with a momentum between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c will interact in a hydrogen or nuclear target, allowing studies of various aspects of non-perturbative QCD. Motivated by the high interaction rates and the diverse physics goals of the experiment, a triggerless readout approach will be employed. In this approach, each detector subsystem will be equipped with intelligent front-end electronics that independently identify signals of interest in real time. In the electromagnetic calorimeter, FPGA-based digitiser modules will be used for this task. The high-radiation environment in PANDA will pose a challenge to these modules, due to both potential radiation damage and high signal rates from the calorimeter. In this thesis, these issues are addressed. First, the results from experimental measurements and Monte Carlo modelling of radiation-induced single event upsets in the FPGA are described. These studies have allowed predictions of the rate of single event upsets during operation of PANDA. Secondly, a newly developed algorithm for real-time processing of calorimeter signals in an FPGA at high pile-up rates is described. This algorithm provides a significant improvement in the time resolution of the calorimeter and allows reconstruction of the pulse height and timing of piled-up detector signals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2020. p. 198
Keywords
PANDA, calorimeter, FPGA, single event upset, Geant4, Monte Carlo, pile-up, feature extraction
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-179733 (URN)978-91-7911-036-9 (ISBN)978-91-7911-037-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-04-17, sal FB55, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted.

Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-04 Last updated: 2020-05-22Bibliographically approved

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