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Oligocene–Miocene trishear fault-propagation folding of the Jabal Hafit Anticline, supported by a three-dimensional geological model; and assessing structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photographs for mapping
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2654-8686
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Creating three-dimensional (3D) models to replicate geological structures is crucial in discerning the geometry and kinematics of a field area. Adopting new technologies such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquired photographs processed by structure-from-motion (SfM) software to create terrain models will enhance structural mapping. The Jabal Hafit anticline which extends through Oman and the United Arab Emirates is a relatively simple and well exposed structure, located in the foreland of the Al Hajar Mountains. Surprisingly, previous studies of this anticline have presented conflicting interpretations regarding the strain field and the timing of deformation. In this study a structural 3D geological model of the Jabal Hafit anticline is constructed and shows that its geometry can be reproduced by a trishear fault-propagation fold. This fold formed above a west-dipping thrust that accommodated WSW–directed shortening. The different geometries of the various biostratigraphic layers indicate that anticline growth occurred during the late Oligocene through to the early–middle Miocene. This timing supports the recently established age for uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains. The anticline was also used as a test site for carrying out UAV-SfM mapping and shows that this is an invaluable tool for the field geologist.   

Keywords [en]
structure-from-motion, photogrammetry, UAV, trishear, fault-propagation, Hafit, Al Hajar Mountains, United Arab Emirates
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-157503OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-157503DiVA, id: diva2:1221721
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, GS2017-0028Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cryptic Orogeny: uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains at an alleged passive margin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cryptic Orogeny: uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains at an alleged passive margin
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mountains evolve and grow because of the large forces that occur from the collision of tectonic plates. Plate boundaries change and move through time, and regions that were once stable, shallow-marine environments can be dragged into subduction zones and get transformed into vast mountain ranges. The Al Hajar Mountains in Oman consist of carbonate rocks which show that during most of the Mesozoic (c. 268 Ma – 95 Ma) they had not yet formed but were flat and below sea level. Following this, in the Late Cretaceous (c. 95 Ma), a major tectonic event caused oceanic crust to be obducted onto this Mesozoic carbonate platform. Then after obduction a shallow marine environment resumed, and Paleogene sedimentary rocks were deposited. Currently, the central mountains are located on the Arabian Plate and are 200 km away from the convergent plate boundary with Eurasia. Here, Arabia is being subducted. Further towards the northwest Arabia and Eurasia are colliding, forming the Zagros Mountains which initiated no earlier than the Oligocene (c. 30 Ma). At this time the mountains were even further away from the plate boundary. The problem with the Al Hajar Mountains is that they record a collision, but are not in a collisional zone. To better understand the formation of the Al Hajar Mountains, a multidiscipline approach was used to investigate the timing at which they developed. This included applying low-temperature thermochronology, U-Pb dating of brittle structures, and balanced cross-sections. Results indicate that the orogeny began in the late Eocene and had concluded by the early Miocene (40 Ma – 15 Ma). Therefore, the uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains is not related to either the older Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the younger Zagros collision, and a new tectonic model is proposed. This research shows that the Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Oman is more cryptic than what has been formerly presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 2018. p. 26
Keywords
uplift, mountains, structural, low-temperature, thermochronology, dating, fission-track, (U-Th)/He, U-Pb, calcite, structure-from-motion, photogrammetry, UAV, trishear, fault-propagation, Hafit, Al Hajar Mountains, United Arab Emirates, Oman
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-157506 (URN)978-91-7797-338-6 (ISBN)978-91-7797-339-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-07, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved

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