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Chemicals from textiles to skin: an in vitro permeation study of benzothiazole
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Salerno, Italy.
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Number of Authors: 62018 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 25, p. 24629-24638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the possible impact on human health, few studies have been conducted to assess the penetration and accumulation of contaminants in the skin after a prolonged contact with textile materials. In previous studies, we have shown that benzothiazole and its derivatives, as well as other potentially hazardous chemicals, often are present as textile contaminants in clothes available on the retail market. Since benzothiazole is a common contaminant in clothes, these can be a possible route for human chemical exposure, both systemic and onto the skin. To investigate this potential exposure, Franz-type and flow-through cells were used for the permeation studies together with a Strat-MA (R) artificial membranes. Experiments were performed using solutions of benzothiazole, as well as contaminated textile samples in the donor chamber. Benzothiazole was demonstrated to penetrate through, as well as being accumulated in the membrane mimicking the skin. After 24 h, up to 62% of benzothiazole was found in the acceptor cell, while up to 37% was found absorbed in the skin mimicking membrane. It also was shown that there was release and permeation from contaminated fabrics. The results indicate that benzothiazole can be released from textile materials, penetrate through the skin, and further enter the human body. This will possibly also apply to other chemical contaminants in textiles, and the results of this study indicate that the presence of these textile contaminants entails potential health risks. A rough risk assessment was made for clothing textiles according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European regulations for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic compounds, using literature data for benzothiazole.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 25, no 25, p. 24629-24638
Keywords [en]
Benzothiazole, Permeation study, Textiles, Clothes, Franz cell, Flow-through diffusion cell, Strat-M (R), Dermal exposure, Risk assessment
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-160231DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2448-6ISI: 000443012600010PubMedID: 29911295OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-160231DiVA, id: diva2:1249872
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2018-09-20Bibliographically approved

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Iadaresta, FrancescoÖstman, ConnyCrescenzi, CarloHolmbäck, Jan
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