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Vardagligt samspel och mobila sängar i barnstorlek – en visuell historisk analys av vilan i förskolan
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0204-6371
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0499-1345
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7183-246X
2019 (Swedish)In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, p. 116-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In previous historical studies on preschools, the main sources are texts; photos are used merely as illustrations. Inspired by the idea to use visual materials to study the look of the past by scrutinising historical photos and films of naptime in preschool, this article will shed light on preschool as an institution and on the materiality of naptime practices. The data comprise of historical photographs and films from the period 1900–1970 (in total 14 films and approximately 200 photographs that, in one way or the other, depict naptime: adult and child interaction, the beds' constructions, the material organization of rooms and naptime routines). By using visual analyses, visualizations and the notion of path dependence, the article shows how the everyday practice of napping was carried out in the historical preschool in relation to questions of continuity and change. The results suggest that the design of beds, as child-sized and easy to move and store, can be understood as defining the institution as a preschool with play and educational practices as its main purpose. At the same time, however, the beds themselves indicate that care, as sleep or napping, was an essential practice in historic preschools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. no 1, p. 116-142
Keywords [en]
naptime, interaction, path dependence, preschool history, visual study
Keywords [sv]
vilan, interaktion, spårberoende, spårbundenhet, förskolehistoria, visuell studie
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Early Childhood Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161333DOI: 10.24834/educare.2019.1.6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-161333DiVA, id: diva2:1257991
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Vilan i förskolan 1910-2013: Visuella material och visuell metodologi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vilan i förskolan 1910-2013: Visuella material och visuell metodologi
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Naptime in Preschool 1910–2013 : Visual materials and visual methodology
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to explore preschool naptime during the period 1910–2013 through visual materials, films and photographs produced by different actors for various purposes at various historical times, and to develop a visual methodology that works with complex visual materials. Even though naptime is central to everyday life in preschool, it is an activity that is rarely a focus of Early Childhood Education research.  

The empirical data derives from two separate but interrelated studies, the first a video ethnographic field study and the second an archival ethnographic study. Both studies include films and photographs that visualise the material environments and social interactions that take place during preschool naptime.

A theoretical framework based on ethnomethodology, visual studies, childhood studies and the history of childhood studies is used. The concept the look of is a theoretical and analytical focus as the photographic image contains visual information about what things and actions look like. The look of children’s and adults’ participation in naptime, the material objects and the preschool environment are the focus when scrutinising the visual data of the study to gain knowledge about how embodied actions, along with the material and spatial design of the preschool environment, form practices at naptime. The thesis takes a post-positivist stance towards the photographic image.

A transdisciplinary methodology, the visual remake, is developed for visual analysis and is used as a tool for comparisons, visualisation of results and reflection. A visual remake maintains the visual aspects of the data in order to keep them visible throughout the research process. It is a tool that visualises observable findings and conceptualises a reflection process through images, and not exclusively via the written word.

The study provides knowledge about everyday life in preschool. The results show how the material and spatial organisation of the room and the participants’ embodied actions in this environment constitute naptime in both historical and contemporary preschools. There are recurrent patterns in the social interaction, as well as similarities in the design of the environment that are stable over time. These are the ways in which the participants use their bodies and interact through embodied interactions. The comparative visual analyses, focusing on continuity and change, suggest that some of these practices can be theorised as path-dependent. The present-day study shows that children constitute a peer culture within naptime, often through secondary adjustments to institutional and adult-structured order. Although the ideal naptime is visualised in the historical materials, it is possible to trace the same sort of naptime peer culture. There are features in the design of the beds used during preschool naptime that are typical of the preschool institution, and this design and the overall organisation of naptime have a path-dependence to ideals in the half-day preschools.

Methodologically, the thesis expands our knowledge of how different visual materials can serve as sources in ECE research and how a research design focusing on the comparison of present-day and historical data opens up space for new research questions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet, 2018. p. 84
Keywords
Early childhood Education and Care, Naptime, Visual Remake, Preschool history, Ethnography, Visual analysis, Ethnomethodology, förskola, vila, visuell remake, förskolehistoria, etnografi, visuell analys, etnometodologi
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Early Childhood Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161336 (URN)978-91-7797-372-0 (ISBN)978-91-7797-373-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-07, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenhius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved

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Grunditz, SofiaLindgren, Anne-LiFrankenberg, Sofia
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