Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Partitioning of Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) to Daphnia magna Overlaps between Restricted and in-Use Categories
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7466-8682
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4984-8323
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Show others and affiliations
Number of Authors: 62018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 9713-9721Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-production volume industrial chemicals consisting of n-alkanes (with 10 to 30 carbon atoms in the chain) with chlorine content from 30 to 70% of weight. In Europe, the use of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) has been restricted by the Stockholm Convention on POPs due to their PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic) properties. Medium (MCCPs) and long chain (LCCPs) chlorinated paraffins are used as substitution products. In this work we studied the partitioning behavior of five different CP technical mixtures from the established categories (2 SCCPs, 1 MCCP, 1 LCCP and 1 CP technical mixture covering all categories) using passive dosing, by determining the partitioning coefficient of CP technical mixtures between silicone and water (Ksilicone-water) as well as between organic matter and water (Koc-water). We show that both silicone-water and organic carbon water partition coefficients overlap between different categories of CP technical mixtures. These results indicate that in-use MCCPs and LCCPs may be equally or more bioaccumulative than restricted SCCPs. For the tested mixtures, both chlorine content and carbon chain length showed a significant correlation with both Ksilicone-water and Koc-water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 52, no 17, p. 9713-9721
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161103DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b00865ISI: 000444061100018PubMedID: 30074385OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-161103DiVA, id: diva2:1259698
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2020-04-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chlorinated Paraffins: improved understanding of their bioaccumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorinated Paraffins: improved understanding of their bioaccumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are industrial chemicals, mainly used as flame retardants, plasticizers and metal cutting fluids. Their production has reached historically high levels in the last decade, with an annual production exceeding one million tonnes. In 2017, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were regulated due to their Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) properties, while medium and long chain chlorinated paraffins (MC and LCCPs) were suggested as alternatives. The high hydrophobicity of CPs, which complicates bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicity testing, has hindered proper hazard identification by regulatory authorities. This project was initiated in response to the insufficient understanding of bioaccumulative and toxicological properties of these chemicals, which have even surpassed the environmental levels of legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in certain regions.

The research presented in this thesis, contributes to filling these knowledge gaps by adapting methods for reliable bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicity assessment. In Paper I, passive dosing, traditionally used for other highly hydrophobic compounds, was adapted and validated for CPs. SC, MC and LCCPs partitioned from silicone into water and, when the crustacean Daphnia magna was introduced into the test system, the CPs were observed to be effectively taken up by the test organism. This passive-dosing approach was further used in Paper II, to investigate the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potential in D. magna. All tested CPs were found to bioaccumulate in daphnids, including highly hydrophobic, long chained CP congeners. The two most bioaccumulative CPs in Paper II (CP-52 and Huels70C) were thereafter used in a chronic toxicity study (Paper III) and significantly decreased population growth and disrupted fatty acid metabolism of D. magna. Finally, in Paper IV, liposome-mediated delivery of chemicals to aquatic biota was adapted for the first time for organic contaminants, including CPs. This approach yielded stable body burdens of the tested chemicals in D. magna and allowed for kinetic and toxicity assessments.

Overall, two alternative bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicity testing methods were successfully adapted for technically challenging (industrial) chemicals. These methods allowed the determination of endpoints of scientific and regulatory interest, such as the high bioaccumulation and toxicity potential of CPs, but were also used to demonstrate their metabolic disruption potential in small crustaceans. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 2020. p. 32
Keywords
chlorinated paraffins, POPs, bioaccumulation, toxicity, ecotoxicology, aquatic toxicology, daphnia magna, liposomes, passive dosing, hydrophobic, mixtures
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-179909 (URN)978-91-7911-072-7 (ISBN)978-91-7911-073-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-05-15, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, digitally via conference (Zoom), public link https://stockholmuniversity.zoom.us/j/65287694593, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2020-04-22 Created: 2020-03-23 Last updated: 2020-05-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Castro, MafaldaBreitholtz, MagnusYuan, BoAthanassiadis, IoannisAsplund, LillemorSobek, Anna
By organisation
Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry
In the same journal
Environmental Science and Technology
Environmental EngineeringEarth and Related Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 69 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf