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Decoding Hosing and Heating Effects on Global Temperature and Meridional Circulations in a Warming Climate
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Number of Authors: 42018 (English)In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 31, no 23, p. 9605-9623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global temperature changes under global warming result from two effects: one is the pure radiative heating effect caused by a change in greenhouse gases, and the other is the freshwater effect related to changes in precipitation, evaporation, and sea ice. The two effects are separated in a coupled climate model through sensitivity experiments in this study. It is indicated that freshwater change has a significant cooling effect that can mitigate the global surface warming by as much as similar to 30%. Two significant regional cooling centers occur: one in the subpolar Atlantic and one in the Southern Ocean. The subpolar Atlantic cooling, also known as the warming hole, is triggered by sea ice melting and the southward cold-water advection from the Arctic Ocean, and is sustained by the weakened Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The Southern Ocean surface cooling is triggered by sea ice melting along the Antarctic and is maintained by the enhanced northward Ekman flow. In these two regions, the effect of freshwater flux change dominates over that of radiation flux change, controlling the sea surface temperature change in the warming climate. The freshwater flux change also results in the Bjerknes compensation, with the atmosphere heat transport change compensating the ocean heat transport change by about 80% during the transient stage of global warming. In terms of global temperature and Earth's energy balance, the freshwater change plays a stabilizing role in a warming climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 31, no 23, p. 9605-9623
Keywords [en]
Atmosphere-ocean interaction, Dynamics, Heating, Hydrologic cycle
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162826DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0297.1ISI: 000449623800002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-162826DiVA, id: diva2:1270093
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved

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