Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
The Association Between Income and Psychotropic Drug Purchases: Individual Fixed Effects Analysis of Annual Longitudinal Data in 2003-2013
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
Number of Authors: 42019 (English)In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous cross-sectional studies show that low income is associated with poor mental health. However, longitudinal research has produced varying results. We assess whether low income is associated with increased psychotropic drug use after accounting for confounding by observed time-varying, and unobserved stable individual differences. Methods: The longitudinal register-based data comprises an 11% nationally representative random sample of Finnish residents aged 30-62 years between the years 2003 and 2013. The analytic sample includes 337,456 individuals (2,825,589 person-years). We estimate the association between annual income and psychotropic purchasing using ordinary-least-squares and fixed effects models, the latter controlling for all unobserved time-invariant individual characteristics. Results: The annual prevalence of psychotropic purchasing was 15%; 13% among men and 18% among women. Adjusted for age squared, sex and calendar year, the doubling of income decreased the probability of purchases by 4 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 4,4) in the ordinary-least-squares model. We observed no association after further adjusting for observed sociodemographic characteristics and unobserved individual differences in the fixed effects specification. Conclusions: Following adjustment for an extensive set of confounders, no contemporaneous association between variations in annual individual income and psychotropic drug purchasing was observed. Similar results were obtained irrespective of baseline income level and sex. The results imply that indirect selection based on preexisting individual characteristics plays a major role in explaining the association between variations in income measured over the short term, and psychotropic drug purchases. The association appears largely attributable to unobserved, stable individual characteristics. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B463.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 30, no 2, p. 221-229
Keywords [en]
Longitudinal study, Income, Mental health, Psychotropic drugs, Fixed effects
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-166667DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000956ISI: 000458417200016PubMedID: 30721166OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-166667DiVA, id: diva2:1294024
Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed
By organisation
Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS)
In the same journal
Epidemiology
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 4 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf