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The magnitude of sex differences in verbal episodic memory increases with social progress: Data from 54 countries across 40 years
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
Number of Authors: 42019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0214945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sex differences in episodic memory have been reported. We investigate (1) the existence of sex differences in verbal and other episodic memory tasks in 54 countries, and (2) the association between the time-and country-specific social progress indicators (a) female to male ratio in education and labor force participation, (b) population education and employment, and (c) GDP per capita, and magnitude of sex differences in verbal episodic memory tasks. Data were retrieved from 612 studies, published 1973-2013. Results showed that females outperformed (Cohen's d > 0) males in verbal (42 out of 45 countries) and other (28 out of 45 countries) episodic memory tasks. Although all three social progress indicators were, separately, positively associated with the female advantage in verbal episodic memory performance, only population education and employment remained significant when considering the social indicators together. Results suggest that women's verbal episodic memory performance benefits more than men's from education and employment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0214945
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-169113DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214945ISI: 000465087500012PubMedID: 31009465OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-169113DiVA, id: diva2:1320267
Available from: 2019-06-04 Created: 2019-06-04 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved

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