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Syntactic Transfer in L3 Learning: What Do Models and Results Tell Us About Learning and Teaching a Third Language?
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
2019 (English)In: Cross-Linguistic Influence: From Empirical Evidence to Classroom Practice / [ed] M. Juncal Gutierrez-Mangado, María Martínez-Adrián, Francisco Gallardo-del-Puerto, Springer, 2019, p. 101-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, five theoretical models of syntactic transfer in third language (L3) learning are presented together with results from studies that examine the role of the background languages (L1 and L2) in L3 syntax. The models are the Cumulative Enhancement Model (CEM, Flynn, Foley, & Vinnitskaya 2004), the L2 status factor hypothesis (Bardel & Falk, 2007, 2012), the Typological Primacy Model (TPM, Rothman, 2011, 2015), the scalpel model (Slabakova, 2017), and the Linguistic Proximity Model (LPM, Westergaard, Mitrofanova, & Mykhaylyk, 2017). With these models, L3 syntax has recently and quickly become a debated issue in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). The models deal with various factors that are held to play particularly important roles in the initial stages of L3 learning. The factors are, above all, Universal Grammar, typological relations between languages or between structures, the learner’s perception of similarities between languages, and the level of metalinguistic knowledge and proficiency in the involved languages. Empirical data tend to point in different directions regarding the significance of these factors. The overall results point at the dynamic nature of multilingualism in that they indicate that both the L1 and the L2(s) may act as transfer sources in L3 syntax, but questions concerning which factors lead to transfer from which background language, and of which particular structures, remain unsolved. This chapter surveys the five models and their attempts to answer the question of how previously acquired or learned languages play a role in the learning of L3 syntax. It ends with a discussion of what this line of research can offer language teachers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019. p. 101-120
Series
Second Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 2193-7648, E-ISSN 2193-7656
Keywords [en]
L3 learning, L3 syntax, Multilingual transfer, Metalinguistic knowledge, Pedagogical implications of L3 research
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171925DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22066-2_6ISBN: 978-3-030-22065-5 (print)ISBN: 978-3-030-22066-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-171925DiVA, id: diva2:1344421
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved

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