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Climate Driven Changes in Timing, Composition and Magnitude of the Baltic Sea Phytoplankton Spring Bloom
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5206-9355
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Number of Authors: 52019 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spring phytoplankton blooms contribute a substantial part to annual production, support pelagic and benthic secondary production and influence biogeochemical cycles in many temperate aquatic systems. Understanding environmental effects on spring bloom dynamics is important for predicting future climate responses and for managing aquatic systems. We analyzed long-term phytoplankton data from one coastal and one offshore station in the Baltic Sea to uncover trends in timing, composition and size of the spring bloom and its correlations to environmental variables. There was a general trend of earlier phytoplankton blooms by 1-2 weeks over the last 20 years, associated with more sunshine and less windy conditions. High water temperatures were associated with earlier blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates that dominate the spring bloom, and decreased diatom bloom magnitude. Overall bloom timing, however, was buffered by a temperature and ice related shift in composition from early blooming diatoms to later blooming dinoflagellates and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Such counteracting responses to climate change highlight the importance of both general and taxon-specific investigations. We hypothesize that the predicted earlier blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates as a response to the expected temperature increase in the Baltic Sea might also be counteracted by more clouds and stronger winds. A shift from early blooming and fast sedimenting diatoms to later blooming groups of dinoflagellates and M. rubrum at higher temperatures during the spring period is expected to increase energy transfers to pelagic secondary production and decrease spring bloom inputs to the benthic system, resulting in lower benthic production and reduced oxygen consumption.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 6, article id 482
Keywords [en]
phytoplankton spring bloom, Baltic Sea, phenology, species composition, climate change, diatom, dinoflagellate, Mesodinium rubrum
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171957DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00482ISI: 000478733300001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-171957DiVA, id: diva2:1348575
Available from: 2019-09-04 Created: 2019-09-04 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Hjerne, OlleHajdu, SusannaLarsson, UlfDowning, Andrea S.Winder, Monika
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