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Modelling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
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Number of Authors: 28802019 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id P06012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Given their close proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be exposed to an unprecedented amount of radiation over their lifetime. The current pixel detector will receive damage from non-ionizing radiation in excess of 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2), while the pixel detector designed for the high-luminosity LHC must cope with an order of magnitude larger fluence. This paper presents a digitization model incorporating effects of radiation damage to the pixel sensors. The model is described in detail and predictions for the charge collection efficiency and Lorentz angle are compared with collision data collected between 2015 and 2017 (<= 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2)).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 14, article id P06012
Keywords [en]
Detector modelling and simulations II (electric fields, charge transport, multiplication and induction, pulse formation, electron emission, etc), Radiation-hard detectors, Solid state detectors
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171138DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/14/06/P06012ISI: 000472134700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-171138DiVA, id: diva2:1351401
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Performance Improvements for Particle Tracking Detectors in Extreme Rate and Radiation Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Improvements for Particle Tracking Detectors in Extreme Rate and Radiation Environments
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to increase its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is being transformed into a higher luminosity machine expected to be operational around 2026. The number of particle collisions will increase by a factor of 10 beyond the current design value, which means that the detectors installed around the LHC are facing various new challenges. The most demanding challenges include handling the enormous data quantities that will be transferred from the front-end readout modules at significantly higher rates than previously, as well as the radiation effects that arise as a consequence of the intense particle flow and that cause damage to sensor elements and electronics.

At the ATLAS experiment, a multipurpose detector operating at the LHC, the impact of the luminosity increase is especially severe for the silicon pixel tracking detector, being the central subsystem located closest to the particle interaction point and therefore exposed to the highest radiation dose and hit density. The extreme radiation doses that the pixel modules will be subject to will cause deformation of the sensor material structure and thus loss of the signals, which after subsequent digitization by the pixel readout chip must be transferred over relatively long distances through a low-mass data link, causing further signal distortion.

The work presented here addresses both major challenges described and outlines solutions for the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector system with regards to these. Firstly, it is demonstrated how improved accuracy of detector simulations and reconstruction of particle trajectories through the detector can be achieved as higher particle fluences are approached, by modeling radiation damage effects that occur in the pixel sensors. Secondly, it is shown how a receiver integrated circuit utilizing an industry standard technique novel within high-energy physics applications has been designed as an integral part of a high-speed transmission link to efficiently restore the signal quality in order to achieve adequate data readout rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 99
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175161 (URN)978-91-7797-909-8 (ISBN)978-91-7797-910-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-29, sal FB54, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved
2. Silicon Tracking and a Search for Long-lived Particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon Tracking and a Search for Long-lived Particles
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ATLAS Detector, below the surface of the Swiss-French border, measures the remnants of high-energy proton-proton collisions, accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Recently the LHC paused operations, having delivered an integrated luminosity corresponding to 150 fb−1 of data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This thesis describes a search for physics beyond the Standard Model using that dataset as well as the charged particle tracking detector technology that renders it possible. The analysis searches for long-lived, massive particles identified by a characteristic decay displaced from the interaction point and produced in association with high momentum jets.

Searching for rare processes requires sifting through a large amount of data, which stresses the ATLAS computing infrastructure. As such, measures are taken to reduce unnecessary computations and supplement our existing resources with, for example, inherently parallel computing architectures. Early adoption of these new architectures is necessary to understand the feasibility of their potential integration, including porting existing algorithms. A popular algorithm used in track reconstruction, the Kalman filter, has been implemented in a neuromorphic architecture: IBM’s TrueNorth. The limits of using such an architecture for tracking, as well as how its performance compares to a non-spiking Kalman filter implementation, are explored in this thesis.

In 2026 the LHC will enter a High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC), increasing the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of five and delivering 4000 fb-1 within twelve years. This will impose significant technical challenges on all aspects of the ATLAS detector, resulting in the entire ATLAS Inner Detector being replaced by an all-silicon tracker. ITk (the new “Inner TracKer”) will be comprised of Strip and Pixel detectors. The layout of the Pixel and Strip detectors was optimised for the upgrade to extend their forward coverage. To cope with the increased number of hits per chip per event and explore novel techniques for dealing with the conditions in HL-LHC, an inter-experiment collaboration, RD53, was formed, tasked with producing a front-end readout chip used in Pixel detectors. This thesis will briefly outline the author’s contribution to both of these projects.

ITk silicon sensors will undergo significant damage over their lifetime due to non-ionising energy loss (NIEL). This damage must be incorporated into the detector simulation both to predict the detector performance and to understand the effects of radiation damage on data taking. The implementation of NIEL radiation damage in the ATLAS simulation framework is discussed in this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 208
Keywords
ATLAS, silicon, silicon tracking, radiation damage, neuromorphic, neuromorphic computing, long-lived particles, susy, rpvll, displaced vertices, pixel, pixel detector
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-168230 (URN)978-91-7797-733-9 (ISBN)978-91-7797-734-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-13, sal FB42 AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved

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