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Strategies Towards Suspect and Non-target Screening of Chemicals in Clothing Textiles by Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography–hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9537-5512
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Textile industry uses a large number of various chemicals in the multi-step production chain. Some of these chemicals are intentionally used to give specific features to textile materials (softness, color, improve fastness, flame resistant etc.). Some other are unintentionally added, such us transformation products (e.g. dye degradation production), impurities of other used compounds and/or biocides. Due to the large number of cloths manufacturing steps, starting from fabric production to clothes trade, information regarding the chemicals used are not always available. Clothes are in close and prolonged contact with the skin, making possible a human exposure to chemicals present in textile material. Furthermore, chemicals, if not removed from wastewater treatment plants, can be released in the environment through the laundry of textile materials. In the present study, reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for screening of suspect and unknown compounds in twenty-four textile samples. Strategies towards suspect and non-target screening are discussed considering the experimental conditions and the subsequent data treatment. Suspect compounds belonging to benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles, nitroanilines, quinolines and phthalates were confirmed in the analyzed samples. The method was able also to successfully identify compounds not included in the suspect list, such as nitrophenols, acridine, and phosphates.

Keywords [en]
Textile chemicals, suspect screening, non target screening, orbitrap, strategies
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175508OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-175508DiVA, id: diva2:1368137
Note

Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-11-06 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Textile Related Chemicals: Analytical Approaches Towards the Assessment of Human and Environmental Exposures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textile Related Chemicals: Analytical Approaches Towards the Assessment of Human and Environmental Exposures
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The textile manufacturing chain involves an extensive use of chemicals as early as fabric-production. To confer special features to textile materials, more chemicals are required in subsequent steps. Furthermore, potentially harmful substances can end up in clothes as transformation products. Compounds that are not covalently bonded to the fabrics have high probability to be released on the skin or into the environment when the clothes are worn or laundered.

In order to remove interfering compounds from solvent extracts of investigated textiles, a cleanup step based on solid phase extraction using graphitic carbon black was developed resulting in effective dye removal. In a pilot screening, nitroanilines were detected up to 0.57 mg/g, which was 2-3 order of magnitude higher than measured quinolines.

Human exposure to chemicals can occur through skin contact. Benzothiazole was chosen as model compound for in-vitro experiments. Its permeation was experimentally determined in order to estimate dermal exposure. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, associated to wearing t-shirt containing BT, according to international standards, were found to be below the acceptable exposure levels.

It has been shown that chemical concentrations decreased during domestic washing. A procedure was developed for enrichment and clean-up of textile related compounds from water samples. The method was applied to three wastewater treatment plant effluents located in Stockholm. Tolyltriazole, 1-benzotriazole, and UV-P were detected within the range of 53-1148 ng/L.

Suspect and non-target screening methodology was developed do detect and identify substances in textile materials. The occurrence of thirteen suspect compounds, belonging to quinolines, nitroanilines, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and phthalates, was confirmed through suspect analysis approach. Furthermore, using a non-target screening approach, compounds not included in the suspect list such as nitrophenols, organophosphate and acridine were identified.

In order to remove interfering compounds from the textile extracts, a cleanup step based on solid phase extraction using graphitic carbon black was developed resulting in effective dye removal. In a pilot screening, nitroanilines were detected up to 0.57 mg/g, which was 2-3 times higher than measured quinolines.

Human exposure to chemicals can occur through skin contact. Benzothiazole was chosen as model compound for in-vitro experiments. Its permeation was experimentally determined in order to estimate dermal exposure. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, associated to wearing t-shirt containing BT, according to international standards, were found to be below the acceptable exposure levels.

It has been shown that chemical concentrations decreased during domestic washing. A procedure was developed for enrichment and clean-up of textile related compounds from water samples. The method was applied to three wastewater treatment plant effluents located in Stockholm. Tolyltriazole, 1-benzotriazole, and UV-P were detected within the range of 53-1148 ng/L.  

Suspect and non-target screening methodology was developed do detect and identify substances in textile materials. The occurrence of thirteen suspect compounds, belonging to quinolines, nitroanilines, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and phthalates, was confirmed through suspect approach. Furthermore, using a non-target screening approach, compounds not included in suspect list such as nitrophenols, organophosphate and acridine were identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 75
Keywords
graphitized carbon black- GCB, franz cell, diffusion cell, risk assessment, screening, textile
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175503 (URN)978-91-7797-877-0 (ISBN)978-91-7797-878-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-20, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Lipidor AB, Solna, Sweden, co-financed this PhD study by 20%  ​

Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-06 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved

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