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Stressful life events and risks for social exclusion in the youth-to-adulthood transition: Findings from Swedish longitudinal data
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7078-3421
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Family background and childhood conditions have long held a special position in the academic literature as an explanation for young people’s life chances. Less attention has been paid to circumstances and events on the cusp of adulthood. This thesis aims to improve the understanding of how stressful life events are associated with future trajectories of education and labour market attachment. The thesis comprises three empirical studies, all of which draw on longitudinal micro data from Swedish administrative registers.

Study I examines different types of housing instability events, among students in upper secondary school still in the parental nest, focusing on non-forced moves as well as eviction threats and forced relocations. It assesses the association between housing instability and educational attainment, operationalized as graduation from upper secondary school. The results suggest that the instability and stress following forced relocations, repeated relocations and long-distance relocations are of particular significance for understanding the link between housing instability and educational outcomes. Single short-distance relocations seem to have little impact on educational success. Findings also indicate that eviction threats, where a forced relocation was arrested, still may have implications for educational attainment. However, sensitivity tests showed that these estimates were not robust to confounding. Averting an eviction, even at this late stage of housing instability, may thus protect against early school leaving. Further research is however needed.

Study II follows young individuals from the time of their residential emancipation and maps their labour market establishment trajectories until their mid-thirties, by means of sequence analysis. It then investigates to what extent the experience of economic hardship, measured as different degrees of social assistance receipt, is associated with adverse labour market trajectories. The results indicate that, for a majority of social assistance recipients, the system works as intended, and they transition to education or work rather swiftly, particularly if economic hardship is brief. Extensive hardship, however, is associated with elevated risks of long-term labour market exclusion that persists well into adulthood.

Study III draws on register data for 12 complete successive cohorts and examines the link between severe violent victimization in young adulthood and labour market exclusion at ages 25 and 30. It puts particular emphasis on the moderating role of offending and gender. The findings suggest that victimized women are a particularly disadvantaged group, having faced a range of social and financial strain. Female victims of violent crime also face elevated risks of labour market exclusion, both in the short- and the long-term, and regardless of criminal offending. For men, however, violent offending moderates the association. While violent victimization adds to the risk of labour market exclusion for male violent offenders, male non-offenders display no elevated risks.

Taken together, the thesis demonstrates that the experience of these life events in the transition from youth to adulthood place young individuals at heightened risk of educational shortfall and exclusion from the labour market, both in the immediate aftermath and later in life. Implications of the findings are that a long-term perspective is warranted in considerations of both preventive and reactive measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University , 2022. , p. 60
Series
Swedish Institute for Social Research, ISSN 0283-8222 ; 109
Keywords [en]
Youth-to-adulthood transition, young adults, stressful life events, labour market, educational attainment, social exclusion, housing instability, economic hardship, social assistance, violent victimization
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-208078ISBN: 978-91-7911-990-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7911-991-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-208078DiVA, id: diva2:1691262
Public defence
2022-10-21, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-09-28 Created: 2022-08-29 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Does housing instability matter for youths’ educational attainment? Findings from Swedish longitudinal register data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does housing instability matter for youths’ educational attainment? Findings from Swedish longitudinal register data
2021 (English)In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 215-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an ample body of research demonstrating the link between housing instability and adverse outcomes. The bulk of this research, however, largely relies on broad operationalizations, generally not considering different types of housing instability. This study extends previous research by focusing on adolescents facing a variety of residential events, including moves, imminent threats of eviction and forced relocations, while also considering the significance of distance. Adopting a counterfactual approach, and drawing on unique data on evictions in Sweden alongside a link to longitudinal registers, this study examines the association between housing instability and educational attainment, operationalized as graduation from upper secondary school. Theoretically, the study draws on the family stress model and theory on social capital, the findings providing support for both approaches. Single relocation was found to have a small impact on educational attainment, but forced relocations, repeated relocations and long-distance relocations are of particular significance for understanding the link between housing instability and educational outcomes. The study contributes to an understanding of the roles that different types of residential events play in youths’ educational attainment, and policy implications are discussed.

Keywords
Educational attainment, eviction, forced relocation, housing mobility, housing instability, residential events, youth
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-183922 (URN)10.1177/0001699320939629 (DOI)000548880300001 ()
Available from: 2020-08-11 Created: 2020-08-11 Last updated: 2022-08-29Bibliographically approved
2. Economic Hardship in Young Adulthood: A Cause for Concern or a Matter of Course while Settling into the Swedish Labour Market?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic Hardship in Young Adulthood: A Cause for Concern or a Matter of Course while Settling into the Swedish Labour Market?
2020 (English)In: Social Policy Review 32: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy, 2020 / [ed] James Rees, Marco Pomati, Elke Heins, Bristol: Policy Press, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Policy Press, 2020
Series
Social Policy Review, ISSN 2515-4710
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-184007 (URN)9781447341666 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-08-11 Created: 2020-08-11 Last updated: 2022-08-29Bibliographically approved
3. Severe violent victimization and labour market exclusion: The significance of the victim-offender overlap
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Severe violent victimization and labour market exclusion: The significance of the victim-offender overlap
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1081-1105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evidence that violent victimization is associated with an array of negative outcomes over the life-course is mounting. While its links to poor health have been extensively documented, socio-economic outcomes have been left relatively unexplored. In this study, Swedish population register data are utilized to examine the relationship between violent victimization and labour market exclusion, placing particular focus on the moderating role of offending and gender differences in this dynamic. Using data on 12 complete successive cohorts born 1975 to 1986, violent victimization is observed in young adulthood (age 20-24) using patient register data, and is measured as interpersonal violence resulting in hospital admission. Labour market exclusion is operationalized as being not in employment education or training (NEET) and is observed at age 25 and 30. Linear Probability Models are estimated for men and women, respectively. The findings suggest that women who have been victims of violent crime face elevated risks of labour exclusion, both in the short and the long run, and regardless of criminal offending. Men, on the other hand, display no excess risk of labour market exclusion in the absence of violent offending. For the group of male violent offenders, however, victimization adds to the risk of labour market exclusion. Implications of the findings are discussed. 

Keywords
Violent victimization, victim-offender overlap, criminal offending, labour market exclusion, NEET, youth-to-adulthood transition
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Criminology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-208435 (URN)10.1177/14773708221128517 (DOI)000876636100001 ()2-s2.0-85141019057 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01201
Available from: 2022-08-29 Created: 2022-08-29 Last updated: 2023-10-09Bibliographically approved

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