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Identification and Determination of Highly Carcinogenic Dibenzopyrene Isomers in Air Particulate Samples from a Street Canyon, a Rooftop, and a Subway Station in Stockholm
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2007 (English)In: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 41, no 3, 731-737 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents determined levels of the highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, dibenzo(a,e)pyrene, dibenzo(a,i)pyrene, and dibenzo(a,h)pyrene as well as three other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)benzo(a)pyrene, perylene and coronenein ambient particulate material samples from a street canyon, a rooftop, and an underground subway station in Stockholm, Sweden. To our knowledge, these are the first reported determinations of dibenzopyrene isomers in air particles from either Stockholm or a subway station. Taking into account both concentration and toxic equivalence factors (TEFs), the PAH with the highest carcinogenic potency in the analyzed samples was dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, and the sum carcinogenic potency of the determined dibenzopyrenes was about 1−4 times higher than that of benzo(a)pyrene in the analyzed samples. These findings indicate that it is important to analyze the dibenzopyrene isomers as well as benzo(a)pyrene; the common approach of using benzo(a)pyrene as an indicator substance could lead to underestimates of the potential carcinogenic potency of PAHs in ambient air. The results also indicate that the relative carcinogenic potency of the determined dibenzopyrenes and benzo(a)pyrene in air particles from Stockholm is similar to that of air particles sampled in Washington in 1976−1977, despite general improvements in air quality in the intervening period. However, more data are needed to characterize temporal variations in dibenzopyrene levels in locations such as subway stations, suburbs, road tunnels, and metropolitan areas. There is also a need to identify and characterize both stationary and mobile PAH sources with respect to emission of dibenzopyrene isomers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington DC, USA: ACS Publishing , 2007. Vol. 41, no 3, 731-737 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-10789DOI: 10.1021/es062232pISI: 000244002800020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-10789DiVA: diva2:177308
Available from: 2009-09-09 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2009-09-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Methods for Determination of Benzo(a)pyrene and High Molecular Weight (>300 Da) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Particulate Matter from Ambient Air and Vehicle Exhausts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for Determination of Benzo(a)pyrene and High Molecular Weight (>300 Da) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Particulate Matter from Ambient Air and Vehicle Exhausts
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Air pollution with particulate matter (PM) raises considerable concern because of its adverse effects on human health. For this reason, and because the mechanisms of PM toxicity are not fully known, there is an urgent need to determine the chemical constituents of atmospheric PM, especially PM emanating from traffic - a major source of urban PM.

This thesis describes analytical methods that have been developed for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air and vehicle exhaust PM, focusing particularly on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and the dibenzopyrenes: dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, dibenzo(a,e)pyrene, dibenzo(a,i)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)pyrene. Trace amounts in complex matrices have been met by coupling parts or the entire clean-up step using liquid chromatography on-line with the analysis step using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry into one automated system.

Application of the methodology, using either ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), to a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban air standard reference material (SRM) yielded comparable or higher concentrations than the assigned NIST values, validating the approach. However, ASE provided higher extraction yields from diesel particulate SRMs than USE, and ASE of diesel SRMs generally yielded higher concentrations than the corresponding NIST values.

Concentrations of dibenzopyrenes in Stockholm air PM, and gasoline- and diesel-fuelled vehicle emissions (ng/km), are reported for the first time. When adjusted in terms of their relative carcinogenic potencies, the dibenzopyrenes were found to pose greater carcinogenic hazards than B(a)P, indicating that the current use of B(a)P as a marker probably leads to underestimates of the carcinogenicity of PAHs in ambient air.

The developed methods also worked well for analyzing larger molecular weight PAHs: more than 60 and 170 potential PAHs were detected in ambient air PM and diesel PM, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm, 2009. 97 p.
Keyword
PAH, dibenzopyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, standard reference material, air particulate matter, diesel particulate matter, toxic equivalence factor, ultrasonic assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, automation, online coupling, GC/MC, LC/GC/MS
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29749 (URN)978-91-7155-920-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-24 Created: 2009-09-11 Last updated: 2009-09-22Bibliographically approved

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