Structural Elements Involved in Proton Translocation by Cytochrome c Oxidase as Revealed by Backbone Amide Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of the E286H Mutant
2008 (English)In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 47, no 1, 73-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal electron acceptor in the respiratory chains of aerobic organisms and energetically couples' the reduction of oxygen to water to proton pumping across the membrane. The mechanisms of proton uptake, gating, and pumping have yet to be completely elucidated at the molecular level for these enzymes. For Rhodobacter sphaeroides CytcO (cytochrome aa<sub>3</sub>), it appears as though the E286 side chain of subunit I is a branching point from which protons are shuttled either to the catalytic site for O<sub>2</sub> reduction or to the acceptor site for pumped protons. Amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to investigate how mutation of this key branching residue to histidine (E286H) affects the structures and dynamics of four redox intermediate states. A functional characterization of this mutant reveals that E286H CytcO retains ∼1% steady-state activity that is uncoupled from proton pumping and that proton transfer from H286 is significantly slowed. Backbone amide H-D exchange kinetics indicates that specific regions of CytcO, perturbed by the E286H mutation, are likely to be involved in proton gating and in the exit pathway for pumped protons. The results indicate that redox-dependent conformational changes around E286 are essential for internal proton transfer. E286H CytcO, however, is incapable of these specific conformational changes and therefore is insensitive to the redox state of the enzyme. These data support a model where the side chain conformation of E286 controls proton translocation in CytcO through its interactions with the proton gate, which directs the flow of protons either to the active site or to the exit pathway. In the E286H mutant, the proton gate does not function properly and the exit channel is unresponsive. These results provide new insight into the structure and mechanism of proton transtocation by CytcO.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 47, no 1, 73-83 p.
Research subject Biochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-11268ISI: 000252024100008PubMedID: 18052347OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-11268DiVA: diva2:177787