Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Remarkable correspondences between ganzfeld mentation and target content - a psychical or psychological effect?
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2006 (English)In: Journal of parapsychology, ISSN 0022-3387, Vol. 70, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Remarkable correspondences between ganzfeld mentation and target content have been reported since the start of ganzfeld experiments in parapsychology. These correspondences may be due either to some form of anomalous information transfer (e.g., telepathy) or to a cognitive illusion on the part of the perceiver. This paper presents 4 studies conducted in order to investigate which of these two possibilities is the more probable. In Study 1, an external judge in a ganzfeld experiment selected 20 short segments that showed most remarkable correspondences between ganzfeld mentation and film clip content while being blind to whether the chosen film clip had been used as a target or as a decoy. Only 6 of the segments showed correspondences between the mentation and the target, which is close to chance expectation level. In Study 2, 11 students rated the 6 correspondences that were “hits” as being equally as impressive as the 14 that were “misses.” In Studies 3 and 4, the possibility that the 14 correspondences that were “misses” could have been due to a form of “displacement clairvoyance” was shown to be very unlikely. It was concluded that it is possible to obtain what at least some people consider to be very remarkable correspondences between mentation and film content by chance alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 70, no 1
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-11412OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-11412DiVA: diva2:177931
Available from: 2008-01-11 Created: 2008-01-11 Last updated: 2013-11-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Coincidences and Paranormal Belief
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coincidences and Paranormal Belief
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis it is argued that coincidences play an important role in the formation of belief, including belief in the paranormal. Three papers are presented. In the first paper, four studies are conducted to investigate whether the often-reported remarkable correspondences in telepathy studies (using the ganzfeld procedure) could be accounted for by chance. The results suggest that they can indeed come about by chance, and that they are almost expected to happen given the large number of variables that can be perceived as “remarkably connected.” The second paper investigates whether individuals who are more sensitive to coincidences are more likely to be believers in the paranormal. Participants were exposed to artificial coincidences, which were formally defined as less or more probable, and were asked to provide remarkability ratings. The results suggest that individual variation in sensitivity to coincidences is associated with belief in the paranormal. It is concluded that because some individuals are more likely to be surprised by coincidences, these individuals may be exposed to a greater number of coincidences that are difficult or impossible to explain naturally. This exposure may lead to the development of paranormal belief. The last paper was an explorative study investigating how sensitivity to coincidences is affected by requiring individuals to assess coincidences in probabilistic terms (reflecting controlled processing) compared to relying on the emotion of surprise (automatic processing), while taking associative looseness into consideration. It was concluded that automatic and controlled processing may have an effect on the judgments of coincidences, but only when individual differences in paranormal belief or associative processing is taken into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 2013. 68 p.
Keyword
Coincidences, surprise, paranormal belief, parapsychology, telepathy, associative processing, probabilistic reasoning, Ganzfeld, associative learning, automatic processing, controlled processing
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-94376 (URN)978-91-7447-792-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-02, David Magnussonsalen (U31), Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. 

Available from: 2013-11-10 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2013-11-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

http://w3.psychology.su.se/staff/jwd/cs06westerlund.pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Westerlund, JoakimDalkvist, JanHadlaczky, Gergö
By organisation
Department of Psychology
In the same journal
Journal of parapsychology
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 98 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf