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The novelty effect: Support for the Novelty-Encoding Hypothesis.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 46, no 2, 133-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In two experiments, we examined the "Novelty-Encoding Hypothesis" proposed by Tulving and Kroll (1995), suggesting that the encoding of online information into long-term memory is influenced by its novelty and that novelty increases recognition performance. In Phase 1 (familiarization phase), subjects participated in a standard memory experiment in which different types of materials (verbs and nouns) were studied under different encoding conditions (enactment and non-enactment) and were tested by an expected recognition test. In Phase 2 (critical phase), subjects evaluated the materials (both familiar materials which were encoded earlier in Phase 1, and novel materials which were not presented earlier in Phase 1) in a frequency judgment task and were given an unexpected recognition test. The results of both experiments showed that novel items were recognized better than familiar items. This result held true for both hit rates--false alarms and hit rates. The novelty effect was observed for different subjects (Swedish and Japanese), different materials (verbs and nouns; high frequency and low frequency), and different types of encoding in Phase 1 (enactment and non-enactment). These findings provide support for the "Novelty-Encoding Hypothesis" stating that the effect is based on the encoding of target items at the time of the critical study (Phase 2). A comparison between the present experiments and the Tulving and Kroll (1995), Dobbins, Kroll, Yonelinas & Liu (1998) and Greene (1999) studies suggests that the novelty effect is more pronounced under incidental encoding than under intentional encoding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 46, no 2, 133-143 p.
Keyword [en]
memory, novelty effect, incidental encoding, recognition
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-13467DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00443.xOAI: diva2:179987
Available from: 2008-04-09 Created: 2008-04-09 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved

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Nilsson, Lars-Göran
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