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Diffraction and IR/Raman Data do not Prove Tetrahedral Water
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 129, no 8, 084502- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use the reverse Monte Carlo modeling technique to fit two extreme structure models for water to available x-ray and neutron diffraction data in q space as well as to the electric field distribution as a representation of the OH stretch Raman spectrum of dilue HOD in D2O; the internal geometries were fitted to a quantum distribution. Forcing the fit to maximize the number of hydrogen (H) bonds results in a tetrahedral model with 74% double H-bond donors (DD) and 21% single donors (SD). Maximizing instead the number of SD species gives 81% SD and 18% DD, while still reproducing the experimental data and losing only 0.7–1.8 kJ/mole interaction energy. By decomposing the simulated Raman spectrum we can relate the models to the observed ultrafast frequency shifts in recent pump-probe measurements. Within the tetrahedral DD structure model the assumed connection between spectrum position and H-bonding indicates ultrafast dynamics in terms of breaking and reforming H bonds while in the strongly distorted model the observed frequency shifts do not necessarily imply H-bond changes. Both pictures are equally valid based on present diffraction and vibrational experimental data. There is thus no strict proof of tetrahedral water based on these data. We also note that the tetrahedral structure model must, to fit diffraction data, be less structured than most models obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. ©2008 American Institute of Physics

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 129, no 8, 084502- p.
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-14617DOI: 10.1063/1.2968550ISI: 000259008900022OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-14617DiVA: diva2:181137
Available from: 2008-12-05 Created: 2008-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Structure Modeling with X-ray Absorption and Reverse Monte Carlo: Applications to Water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure Modeling with X-ray Absorption and Reverse Monte Carlo: Applications to Water
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water is an important substance. It is part of us, of our environment, and is a fundamental prerequisite for the existence of life as we know it. The structure of water is still, after over 100 years of research on the subject, however under debate. In this thesis x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling are used to search for structural solutions of water consistent with many different experimental data sets, with emphasis on the combination of different experimental techniques for a reliable structure determination. Neutron and x-ray diffraction are analyzed in combination with the more recent synchrotron radiation based XAS. Geometrical criteria for H-bonding are implemented in RMC to drive the fits and allow to evaluate differently H-bonded structure models against the data. It is shown that the available diffraction data put little constraints on the type of H-bond topology or O-O-O tetrahedrality for the structure of liquid water. It is also demonstrated that classical MD simulations, using some of the most common interaction potentials for water, give rise to O-O and O-H pair-correlation functions with too sharp first peaks at too short distances to be in agreement with diffraction, and furthermore that requiring a large fraction of broken H-bonds is not in itself enough for a structure model to reproduce the experimental XAS. A contribution to the theoretical description of XAS is made by an in-depth investigation of important technical aspects of the TP-DFT spectrum calculations. A novel approach to RMC, applicable also to data that require a significant amount of computer time to evaluate, is developed which makes use of pre-computed properties from a large set of local geometries allowing RMC simulations directly on data from core-level spectroscopies such as XAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2009. 83 p.
Keyword
water structure, x-ray absorption, spectroscopy, diffraction, reverse monte carlo, XAS, EXAFS, XANES, RMC, TP-DFT spectrum calculations
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Chemical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-31475 (URN)978-91-7155-972-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-11, FB53 AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4, 5 and 6: SubmittedAvailable from: 2009-11-19 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved
2. Theoretical modeling of x-ray and vibrational spectroscopies applied to liquid water and surface adsorbates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical modeling of x-ray and vibrational spectroscopies applied to liquid water and surface adsorbates
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents results of theoretical modeling of x-ray and vibrational spectroscopies applied to liquid water and to CO adsorbed on a Ni(100) surface. The Reverse Monte Carlo method is used to search for  water structures that reproduce diffraction, IR/Raman and x-ray absorption by fitting them to experimental data and imposed constraints. Some of the structures are created to have a large fraction of broken hydrogen bonds because recent x-ray absorption and emission studies have been seen to support the existence of such structures. In the fitting procedure a fast way of computing the IR/Raman spectrum for an isolated OH stretch is used, where the frequency is represented by the electric field projected in the direction of the stretch coordinate. This method is critically evaluated by comparing it to quantum chemical cluster calculations. Furthermore, the x-ray emission spectrum of water is investigated, the modeling of which is complicated by the necessity of including vibrational effects in the spectrum calculations due to a dissociative intermediate state. Based on the Kramers-Heisenberg formula a new semi-classical method is developed to include vibrational effects in x-ray emission calculations. The method is seen to work very well for a one-dimensional test system. Moreover, x-ray absorption and emission are implemented in a periodic Density Functional Theory code which is applied to ice and to the surface adsorbate system CO on Ni(100).

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen presenterar resultat av teoretisk modellering av röntgen- och vibrationella spektroskopier applicerade på flytande vatten och på CO adsorberat på en Ni(100) -yta. Reverse Monte Carlo-metoden används till att söka efter vattenstrukturer som reproducerar diffraktion, IR/Raman, röntgenabsorption och emission genom att anpassa strukturerna till experimentella data samt till pålagda restriktionsvillkor. Vissa av strukturerna är skapade så att de har en stor andel brutna vätebindningar eftersom nya röntgenabsorptions- och emissionsexperiment har setts stödja förekomsten av sådana strukturer. I anpassningsprocessen används en metod för att snabbt beräkna IR/Raman-spektrum för en isolerad OH-stretch, där frekvensen representeras av det elektriska fältet projicerat i stretch-koordinatens riktning.Vi utvärderar kritiskt denna metod genom att jämföra den med kvantkemiska klusterberäkningar. Vidare undersöks vattens röntgenemissionsspektrum, vars modellering kompliceras av nödvändigheten att inkludera vibrationella effekter i spektrumberäkningarna på grund av ett dissociativt intermediärt tillstånd. Baserat på Kramers-Heisenbergformeln utvecklas en ny semiklassisk metod som inkluderar vibrationella effekter. Metoden visar sig fungera mycket väl för ett endimensionellt testsystem. Dessutom implementerar vi röntgenabsorption och emission i en periodisk Täthetsfunktionalteorikod som vi sedan applicerar  på is och på ett ytadsorbatsystem: CO på Ni(100).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2010. 61 p.
Keyword
water, XAS, XES, IR, Raman
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Chemical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38868 (URN)978-91-7447-096-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-06-04, sal FR4, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript. Paper 6: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-05-11 Created: 2010-05-03 Last updated: 2011-11-14Bibliographically approved
3. Structure, Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Liquid Water: Insights from Molecular Simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure, Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Liquid Water: Insights from Molecular Simulations
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water is a complex liquid with many unusual properties. Our understanding of its physical, chemical and biological properties is greatly advanced after a century of dedicated research but there are still many unresolved questions. If answered, they could have important long-term consequences for practical applications ranging from drug design to water purification. This thesis presents results on the structure, dynamics and thermodynamics of liquid water. The focus is on theoretical simulations applied to interpret experimental data from mainly x-ray and neutron scattering and spectroscopy techniques. The structural sensitivity of x-ray and neutron diffraction is investigated using reverse Monte Carlo simulations and information on the pair-correlation functions of water is derived. A new method for structure modeling of computationally demanding data sets is presented and used to resolve an inconsistency between experimental extended x-ray absorption fine-structure and diffraction data regarding oxygen-oxygen pair-correlations. Small-angle x-ray scattering data are modeled using large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations, and the observed enhanced scattering at supercooled temperatures is connected to the presence of a Widom line emanating from a liquid-liquid critical point in the deeply supercooled high pressure regime. An investigation of inherent structures reveals an underlying structural bimodality in the simulations connected to disordered high-density and ordered low-density molecules, providing a clearer interpretation of experimental small-angle scattering data. Dynamical anomalies in supercooled water observed in inelastic neutron scattering experiments, manifested by low-frequency collective excitations resembling a boson peak, are investigated and found to be connected to the thermodynamically defined Widom line. Finally, x-ray absorption spectra are calculated for simulated water structures using density functional theory. An approximation of intra-molecular zero-point vibrational effects is found to significantly improve the relative spectral intensities but a structural investigation indicates that the classical simulations underestimate the amount of broken hydrogen bonds.

Abstract [sv]

Vatten är en komplex vätska med flera ovanliga egenskaper. Vår förståelse av dess fysiska, kemiska och biologiska egenskaper har utvecklats mycket sedan systematiska vetenskapliga studier började genomföras för mer än ett sekel sedan, men många viktiga frågor är fortfarande obesvarade. En ökad förståelse skulle på sikt kunna leda till framsteg inom viktiga områden så som medicinutveckling och vattenrening. Denna avhandling presenterar resultat kring vattnets struktur, dynamik och termodynamik. Fokusen ligger på teoretiska simuleringar som använts för att tolka experimentella data från huvudsakligen röntgen- och neutronspridning samt spektroskopier. Den strukturella känsligheten i röntgen- och neutrondiffraktionsdata undersöks via reverse Monte Carlo metoden och information om de partiella parkorrelationsfunktionerna erhålls. En ny metod för strukturmodellering av beräkningsintensiva data presenteras och används för att lösa en motsägelse mellan experimentell diffraktion och EXAFS angående syre- syre parkorrelationsfunktionen. Data från röntgensmåvinkelspridning modelleras med storskaliga klassiska molekyldynamiksimuleringar, och den observerade förhöjda småvinkelspridningen vid underkylda temperaturer kopplas till existensen av en Widomlinje härrörande från en vätske- vätske kritisk punkt i det djupt underkylda området vid höga tryck. En undersökning av inherenta strukturer i simuleringarna påvisar en underliggande strukturell bimodalitet mellan molekyler i oordnade högdensitetsregioner respektive ordnade lågdensitetsregioner, vilket ger en tydligare tolkning av den experimentella småvinkelspridningen. Dynamiska anomalier i underkylt vatten som har observerats i inelastisk neutronspridning, speciellt förekomsten av lågfrekventa excitationer som liknar en bosontopp, undersöks och kopplas till den termodynamiskt definierade Widomlinjen. Slutligen presenteras densitetsfunktionalberäkningar av röntgenabsorptionsspektra för simulerade vattenstrukturer. En approximation av intramolekylära nollpunktsvibrationseffekter förbättrar relativa intensiteteri spektrumen avsevärt, men en strukturanalys visar att klassiska simuleringar av vatten underskattar andelen brutna vätebindningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2011. 102 p.
Keyword
Liquid water, supercooled water, diffraction, structure modeling, molecular dynamics, x-ray spectroscopy, EXAFS, SAXS
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Theoretical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-56711 (URN)978-91-7447-287-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-27, lecture room FA31, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 6: Submitted. Paper 7: Submitted. Paper 8: Manuscript. Paper 9: Submitted. Available from: 2011-05-05 Created: 2011-04-22 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved

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Leetmaa, MikaelWikfeldt, Kjartan ThorLjungberg, Mathias P.Odelius, MichaelNilsson, AndersPettersson, Lars G. M.
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