Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients of Tower of Hanoi Performance: The Role of Practice Effects and Cohort Differences in Education
2008 (English)In: Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, Vol. 15, no 1, 40-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We examined 5-year longitudinal changes in Tower of Hanoi (TOH) performance in a population-based sample of adults (35-85 years initially; n = 1480). An age-matched sample (n = 433) was included to estimate practice effects. The longitudinal age gradients differed substantially from the cross-sectional age gradients. This was the case even when practice effects, that were substantial in magnitude across the young/middle-aged groups, were controlled for. Instead of a continuous age-related deficit in performance from 35 and onwards, longitudinal data showed slowing of performance and increases of illegal moves past age 65. Cohort-related differences in educational attainment did not account for this discrepancy. Further analyses revealed a positive relation between practice-related gains and explicit memory of having performed the task at the first test occasion and a positive association between latent changes in TOH and Block Design, in line with cross-sectional findings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate a pattern of age-related changes indicating a late-onset decline of TOH performance and underscore the need to control for retest effects in longitudinal aging research.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 15, no 1, 40-67 p.
adult life span, memory, population, stability, decline, Betula, health
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-14742DOI: doi:10.1080/13825580701533751ISI: 000252311900003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-14742DiVA: diva2:181262
The Betula Study is funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (1988-0082:17; J2001-0682), Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (D1988-0092, D1989-0115, D1990-0074, D1991-0258, D1992-0143, D1997-0756, D1997-1841, D1999-0739, B1999-474), Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (F377/1988-2000), the Swedish Council for Social Research (1988-1990: 88-0082, and 311/1991-2000), and the Swedish Research Council (345-2003-3883, 315-2004-6977).2008-10-292008-10-292011-01-10Bibliographically approved