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Exploring the gender typing of management characteristics in an egalitarian context
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 6, 549-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present studies sought to investigate what kind of stereotypes are used in Sweden to describe male and female managers, and whether genderneutral characteristics are used in the description of requisite management characteristics. In Study 1, participants answered open-ended questions on good, bad, female and male management. Requisite management characteristics showed a greater resemblance to the descriptions of female managers than male. In Study 2, female managers were rated more positively than men, and attributes ascribed to men in Study 1 were considered just as descriptive of women. Although participants described female managers more positively than male, responses often implied a norm of men as managers. In this way, prescriptive aspects of the stereotype may still work against female managers, despite the more feminine description of management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 49, no 6, 549-557 p.
Keyword [en]
gender typing, management, stereotypes
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-17130DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00662.xISI: 000261108500007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-17130DiVA: diva2:183650
Available from: 2009-01-07 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Women and men in management: Stereotypes, evaluation and discourse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women and men in management: Stereotypes, evaluation and discourse
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Very few women hold top corporate positions in Sweden, and women are underrepresented as managers in all work sectors. The present thesis examined stereotypes, perceptions and presuppositions about women, men and management with a combination of perspectives from social and organizational psychology, discourse analysis and gender in organization research. Study 1 of Paper I was a content analysis of management attributes and cultural stereotypes of female and male managers. In Study 2, an inventory of these attributes was formed, and participants’ stereotype endorsements tested. Stereotypes of female managers resembled good management more than male managers, and they were rated more positively, but a masculine norm was implied. Paper II aimed to study and compare gender-related management stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers, and examine perceived gender bias. Men evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on communal attributes, and, contrary to women, judged the male manager stereotype more positively on agentic attributes. This may help explain the scarcity of women in top management. Women perceived more gender bias favoring male managers than men. Actual male and female managers were rated similarly. Still, the Euclidian distances showed that ratings of actual managers and stereotypes were linked. Paper III examined the discourse on the lack of women in top corporate positions, explanations and links to proposed measures in a project to counter the gender imbalance. A liberal discourse with contradictions and textual silences was exposed. Gender had to be construed in line with traditional gender norms and division of labor to make sense of the proposed explanations. To conclude, one can be reassured by the largely communal portrayal of good management and positive evaluations of female managers, but also apprehensive about the masculine norm of management, perceived gender bias in favor of men, and traditional gender constructions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 2014. 78 p.
Keyword
gender, management, leadership, stereotypes, gender typing, liberal discourse, ideology, agency, communion, social roles
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108461 (URN)978-91-7649-043-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-05, David Magnussonsalen (U31), Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-10-27 Last updated: 2014-11-18Bibliographically approved

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