A new look at value structure
2008 (English)In: SPSP meeting: Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
Schwartz and Bilsky (1989, 1991) assumed that values are organized in ten motivational types that form a circumplex structure. We extend and modify Schwartz and Bilsky’s theory by distinguishing between bipolar and unipolar values. Both types of values are associated with positive emotions. Bipolar values are organized such that a given value (e.g., security) that leads to experience of a given positive emotion (e.g., feel safe) at the expense of another positive emotion related to an opposite value (e.g., feel excited when attaining courage), which in turn implies experiencing a negative emotion (e.g., feel bored) when attaining the former value. Bipolar values are located opposite to each other in a two-dimensional circumplex structure. Unipolar values do not have any opposites. Therefore, they do not lead to any specific negative emotion resulting from decreasing attainment of an opposite value. These expectations were confirmed in two empirical studies. In Study 1 a total of 144 psychology students rated eight bipolar values from different perspectives (access, importance, positivity, ability, and engagement). Multidimensional scaling of the value ratings resulted in a circumplex structure. In Study 2 ratings by participants of 24 emotions in relation to eight bipolar values and four unipolar values revealed that each of the bipolar values were associated with positive and negative emotions. Increases of unipolar values were associated only with positive emotions while decreases were associated only with negative emotions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
values, emotions, circumplex
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-18067OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-18067DiVA: diva2:184589