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The Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32): Its factorial structure and association to indices of impairment in German and Swedish nonclinical samples.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
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2007 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, Vol. 48, no 1, 79-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bipolar disorders are often not recognized. Several instruments were developed but none primarily focused on hypomania. The hypomania checklist (HCL) is aimed at the identification of bipolarity in outpatients. Using a German and Swedish sample, we investigated if the factor structure in nonclinical samples is similar to the one reported for outpatient samples. Furthermore, we tested if people who probably had a lifetime history of hypomania report more depression or other signs of impairment and if current depression is associated with lifetime hypomania. In the German study, participants completed the HCL-32 as an online questionnaire that also included questions about lifetime and current depression (n=695), whereas the Swedish data relied on the paper-and-pencil version of the HCL-32 completed by a ranclorn sample from a representative population sample (n=408). The factor structure of the HCL-32 was fairly similar is both samples and to the ones presented by Angst et al (Journal of Affective Disorders, 2005; 88: 217-33). People reporting “highs” (>= 4 days and experiencing negative consequences) not only endorsed more HCL-32 symptoms but also had higher rates of current and former depression and psychotherapy. Level of current depression was also associated with lifetime hypomanic symptoms. An “active-elated” and “risk-taking/irritable” factor of hypomania can be distinguished with the HCL-32 in clinical and nonclinical samples. Based on our results, the HCL-32 might even be useful as screening toot in nonclinical samples and not only in depressed outpatients. However, our data do not allow estimating sensitivity and specificity of the HCL-32 because structured clinical interviews were not included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 48, no 1, 79-87 p.
Keyword [en]
national-comorbidity-survey, bipolar spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-19449DOI: doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.07.001ISI: 000242954200013OAI: diva2:185973
Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2011-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Nilsson, Lars-Göran
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