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Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
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2006 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 40, no 1, 29-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have inferred the first empirically supported hypothesis of relationships for the cosmopolitan butterfly subfamily Satyrinae. We used 3090 base pairs of DNA from the mitochondrial gene COI and the nuclear genes EF-1alpha and wingless for 165 Satyrinae taxa representing 4 tribes and 15 subtribes, and 26 outgroups, in order to test the monophyly of the subfamily and elucidate phylogenetic relationships of its major lineages. In a combined analysis, the three gene regions supported an almost fully resolved topology, which recovered Satyrinae as polyphyletic, and revealed that the current classification of suprageneric taxa within the subfamily is comprised almost completely of unnatural assemblages. The most noteworthy findings are that Manataria is closely related to Melanitini; Palaeonympha belongs to Euptychiina; Oressinoma, Orsotriaena and Coenonympha group with the Hypocystina; Miller's (1968). Parargina is polyphyletic and its components group with multiple distantly related lineages; and the subtribes Elymniina and Zetherina fall outside the Satyrinae. The three gene regions used in a combined analysis prove to be very effective in resolving relationships of Satyrinae at the subtribal and tribal levels. Further sampling of the taxa closely related to Satyrinae, as well as more extensive sampling of genera within the tribes and subtribes for this group will be critical to test the monophyly of the subfamily and establish a stronger basis for future biogeographical and evolutionary studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 40, no 1, 29-49 p.
National Category
Biological Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-19479DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.007PubMedID: 16563805OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-19479DiVA: diva2:186003
Available from: 2007-11-12 Created: 2007-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evolutionary history of the butterfly subfamily Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary history of the butterfly subfamily Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

I present an overview of the evolutionary history of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). By using Bayesian and cladistic methods, I develop a phylogenetic hypothesis as a basis for studying the evolutionary history of the group. After estimating ages of origin and diversification for clades of interest, I show evidence for a radiation of a highly species-rich group of grass feeders in Satyrinae —the tribe Satyrini— which explains in part the high diversity of this group. The timing of diversification for Satyrini butterflies coincided with the spread of grasses throughout the globe, which was followed by spread of the butterflies and colonization of new emerging habitats made available by the change in global climate during the Oligocene that facilitated the spread of grasses. Such a dispersal of Satyrinae was the result of a habitat shift from closed, forested environments into open, grasslands and savannas, which became increasinly common since the Oligocene. Such dispersal of Satyrinae was facilitated by the appearance of geographic bridges that permitted ancestral migrations from the Palaearctic into North America and from North to South America, such as the continuous forest belt of Beringia (at 31 Mya and 14–10 Mya) and the temporary GAARlandia landspan (during 35–33 Mya). Thus, I show that the Satyrinae butterflies are such a highly diverse and distributed worldwide group of organisms thanks to many factors that were of crucial importance in their evolution. Intrisic factors such as evolution of adaptive traits and phylogenetic constrains, as well as exogenous contingencies such as climate change and geological events. Thus, in this thesis I show strong evidence that Satyrinae is so species-rich because they were able to feed on grasses, escape from living in dicotyledonous forests and start inhabiting grasslands and savannas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2009. 24 p.
Keyword
hostplant use, habitat shift, diversity, grasses, biogeography, phylogeny
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8507 (URN)978-91-7155-810-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-03-13, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8 C, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-05 Last updated: 2011-03-22Bibliographically approved

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