Chloride retention in forest soil by microbial uptake and by natural chlorination of organic matter
2007 (English)In: Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, Vol. 71, no 13, 3182-3192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Inorganic chlorine (i.e. chloride; Cl-in) is generally considered inert in soil and is often used as a tracer of soil and ground water movements. However, recent studies indicate that substantial retention or release of Cl-in can occur in soil, but the rates and processes responsible under different environmental conditions are largely unknown. We performed Cl-36 tracer experiments which indicated that short-term microbial uptake and release of Cl-in, in combination with more long-term natural formation of chlorinated organic matter (Cl-org), caused Cl-in imbalances in coniferous forest soil. Extensive microbial uptake and release of Cl-in occurred over short time scales, and were probably associated with changes in environmental conditions. Up to 24% of the initially available Clin within pore water was retained by microbial uptake within a week in our experiments, but most of this Cl-in, was released to the pore water again within a month, probably associated with decreasing microbial populations. The natural formation of Clorg resulted in a net immobilization of 4% of the initial pore water Clin over four months. If this rate is representative for the area where soil was collected, Clorg formation would correspond to a conversion of 25% of the yearly wet deposition of Cl-in. The study illustrates the potential of two Clin retaining processes in addition to those previously addressed elsewhere (e.g. uptake of chloride by vegetation). Hence, several processes operating at different time scales and with different regulation mechanisms can cause Clin imbalances in soil. Altogether, the results of the present study (1) provide evidence that Cl-in cannot be assumed to be inert in soil, (2) show that microbial exchange can regulate pore water Cl-in, concentrations and (3) confirm the controversial idea of substantial natural chlorination of soil organic matter.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 71, no 13, 3182-3192 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-19690DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.04.028ISI: 000247895700004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-19690DiVA: diva2:186214