Design of a fast multileaf collimator for radiobiological optimized IMRT with scanned beams of photons, electrons, and light ions.
2007 (English)In: Med Phys, ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 34, no 3, 877-88 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Intensity modulated radiation therapy is rapidly becoming the treatment of choice for most tumors with respect to minimizing damage to the normal tissues and maximizing tumor control. Today, intensity modulated beams are most commonly delivered using segmental multileaf collimation, although an increasing number of radiation therapy departments are employing dynamic multileaf collimation. The irradiation time using dynamic multileaf collimation depends strongly on the nature of the desired dose distribution, and it is difficult to reduce this time to less than the sum of the irradiation times for all individual peak heights using dynamic leaf collimation [Svensson et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 37–61 (1994)]. Therefore, the intensity modulation will considerably increase the total treatment time. A more cost-effective procedure for rapid intensity modulation is using narrow scanned photon, electron, and light ion beams in combination with fast multileaf collimator penumbra trimming. With this approach, the irradiation time is largely independent of the complexity of the desired intensity distribution and, in the case of photon beams, may even be shorter than with uniform beams. The intensity modulation is achieved primarily by scanning of a narrow elementary photon pencil beam generated by directing a narrow well focused high energy electron beam onto a thin bremsstrahlung target. In the present study, the design of a fast low-weight multileaf collimator that is capable of further sharpening the penumbra at the edge of the elementary scanned beam has been simulated, in order to minimize the dose or radiation response of healthy tissues. In the case of photon beams, such a multileaf collimator can be placed relatively close to the bremsstrahlung target to minimize its size. It can also be flat and thin, i.e., only 15–25 mm thick in the direction of the beam with edges made of tungsten or preferably osmium to optimize the sharpening of the penumbra. The low height of the collimator will minimize edge scatter from glancing incidence. The major portions of the collimator leafs can then be made of steel or even aluminum, so that the total weight of the multileaf collimator will be as low as 10 kg, which may even allow high-speed collimation in real time in synchrony with organ movements. To demonstrate the efficiency of this collimator design in combination with pencil beam scanning, optimal radiobiological treatments of an advanced cervix cancer were simulated. Different geometrical collimator designs were tested for bremsstrahlung, electron, and light ion beams. With a 10 mm half-width elementary scanned photon beam and a steel collimator with tungsten edges, it was possible to make as effective treatments as obtained with intensity modulated beams of full resolution, i.e., here 5 mm resolution in the fluence map. In combination with narrow pencil beam scanning, such a collimator may provide ideal delivery of photons, electrons, or light ions for radiation therapy synchronized to breathing and other organ motions. These high-energy photon and light ion beams may allow three-dimensional in vivo verification of delivery and thereby clinical implementation of the BIOART approach using Biologically Optimized three-dimensional in vivo predictive Assay based adaptive Radiation Therapy [Brahme, Acta Oncol. 42, 123–126 (2003)].
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 34, no 3, 877-88 p.
Electromagnetics, Electrons, Equipment Design, Ions, Models; Statistical, Monte Carlo Method, Normal Distribution, Particle Accelerators, Photons, Radiotherapy/*instrumentation, Radiotherapy Dosage, Radiotherapy Planning; Computer-Assisted/*methods, Radiotherapy; Computer-Assisted, Radiotherapy; Intensity-Modulated/*instrumentation/*methods, Time Factors
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-21549ISI: 000245082600003PubMedID: 17441233OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-21549DiVA: diva2:188076