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Establishment of the exotic species Fucus evanescens C. Ag. (Phaeophyceae) in Öresund, Southern Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
2002 (English)In: Botanica Marina, ISSN 0006-8055, E-ISSN 1437-4323, Vol. 45, no 6, 510-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The spread and establishment of the exotic species Fucus evanescens in öresund, Southern Sweden was documented through inventories in 1966–72 and 2000. The species spread fast from the first known introduction in 1955, colonising harbours along the coast. After this expansion the further spread has been limited and the species is still largely confined to harbour areas, where it occurs in the same depth zone as its native relatives, F. vesiculosus, F. serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. It is more common in the northern part of the area and has not expanded into the Baltic Sea proper. Tests of the attachment strength of F. evanescens plants suggest that the restriction to harbours is not due to the direct effects of wave exposure on adults. In the laboratory, reproductive success of F. evanescens decreased from 99% in 24 psu to 12% in 10 psu and at lower salinity reproduction failed. Growth of embryonic recruits was similarly affected by salinity. Hence, low salinity explains the limited success of F. evanescens in southern Öresund, where the salinity is low and fluctuating, and its failure to colonise the Baltic Sea proper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 45, no 6, 510-517 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-22994OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-22994DiVA: diva2:189869
Available from: 2004-05-06 Created: 2004-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Marine Seaweed Invasions: the Ecology of Introduced Fucus evanescens
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine Seaweed Invasions: the Ecology of Introduced Fucus evanescens
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biological invasions are an important issue of global change and an increased understanding of invasion processes is of crucial importance for both conservation managers and international trade. In this thesis, I have studied the invasion of the brown seaweed Fucus evanescens, to investigate the fate and effect of a perennial, habitat-forming seaweed introduced to a coastal ecosystem. A long-term study of the spread of F. evanescens in Öresund (southern Sweden) showed that the species was able to expand its range quickly during the first 20 years after the introduction, but that the expansion has been slow during the subsequent 30 years. Both in Öresund and in Skagerrak, the species is largely restricted to sites where native fucoids are scarce. Laboratory experiments showed that the restricted spread of F. evanescens cannot be explained by the investigated abiotic factors (wave exposure and salinity), although salinity restricts the species from spreading into the Baltic Sea. Neither did I find evidence for that herbivores or epibiota provide biotic resistance to the invader. On the contrary, F. evanescens was less consumed by native herbivores, both compared to the native fucoids and to F. evanescens populations in its native range, and little overgrown by epiphytes. Instead, the restricted spread may be due to competition from native seaweeds, probably by pre-occupation of space, and the establishment has probably been facilitated by disturbance.

The studies provided little support for a general enemy release in introduced seaweeds. The low herbivore consumption of F. evanescens in Sweden could not be explained by release from specialist herbivores. Instead, high levels of chemical anti-herbivore defence metabolites (phlorotannins) could explain the pattern of herbivore preference for different fucoids. Likewise, the low epibiotic colonisation of F. evanescens plants could be explained by high resistance to epibiotic survival. This shows that colonisation of invading seaweeds by native herbivores and epibionts depends on properties of the invading species. The large differences between fucoid species in their quality as food and habitat for epibionts and herbivores imply that invasions of such habitat-forming species may have a considerable effect on a number of other species in shallow coastal areas. However, since F. evanescens did not exclude other fucoids in its new range, its effect on the recipient biota is probably small.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Botaniska institutionen, 2004. 44 p.
Keyword
biological invasions, marine, seaweed, algae, herbivory, enemy release hypothesis, phlorotannins, anti-fouling, Fucus evanescens
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-132 (URN)91-7265-870-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-05-28, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-05-06 Created: 2004-05-06Bibliographically approved

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