Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Low congruence between the diversity of Waxcap (Hygrocybe spp.) fungi and vascular plants in semi-natural grasslands
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
2008 (English)In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, Vol. 9, no 5, 514-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The diversity of fungi in semi-natural grasslands is poorly known, partly due to difficulties in species identification in the field but also because there are few specialists available. Diversity assessments of grassland fungi would be facilitated if a potential surrogate group for fungal diversity could be identified. The aim of this study was to assess whether plant diversity patterns in semi-natural grasslands are congruent with diversity patterns of Waxcap (Hygrocybe spp.) fungi. Waxcaps, together with several other groups of fungi (e.g. the genera Entoloma, Dermoloma, Camarophyllopsis, and the families Clavariaceae and Geoglossaceae) have habitat requirements similar to many plants typical for semi-natural grasslands and they are all threatened by ceased management and nutrient enrichment. Diversity data from 31 semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden were used to examine if there is congruence in species richness, nestedness, β-diversity and species composition between plants and Hygrocybe fungi. Species richness of Hygrocybe was significantly positively correlated with plant richness, although the relationship was not strong (r2=0.14). Both plant and Hygrocybe species composition was significantly nested, i.e. species-poor sites contain a subset of species from species-rich sites, which suggests that rare species mostly occur in the species-rich sites. A species similarity analysis between the grassland sites showed that there is low overlap between species composition of plants and Hygrocybe, indicating that conservation decisions based solely on plants may not fulfil the requirements of the Hygrocybe species. The conclusion is that there is low congruence between plant and Hygrocybe species diversity, making plants a poor surrogate group for Hygrocybe fungi, and probably also for other grassland fungi.

Abstract [de]

Die Diversität von Pilzen in halbnatürlichen Grünländern ist kaum bekannt, z. T. aufgrund der schwierigen Artbestimmung im Gelände, aber auch weil nur wenige Spezialisten verfügbar sind. Die Einschätzung der Diversität von Grünlandpilzen würde gefördert, wenn eine potenzielle Ersatzgruppe zur Bestimmung der Pilzdiversität identifiziert werden könnte. Das Ziel dieser Untersuchung war daher, ob die Muster der Pflanzendiversität in halbnatürlichen Grünländern mit den Mustern der Saftlingpilze (Hygrocybe spp.) kongruent sind. Saftlinge haben zusammen mit einigen anderen Gruppen von Pilzen (z. B. die Gattungen Entoloma, Dermoloma, Camarophyllopsis sowie die Familien Clavariaceae und Geoglossaceae) Habitatansprüche, die vergleichbar sind mit denen von vielen Pflanzen, die typisch für halbnatürliche Grünländer sind und die alle durch die Aufgabe der Bewirtschaftung und die Nährstoffanreicherung bedroht sind. Es wurden die Diversitätsdaten von 31 halbnatürlichen Grünländern in Südschweden genutzt, um zu untersuchen, ob eine Kongruenz im Artenreichtum, der Schachtelung, der β-Diversität und der Artenzusammensetzung zwischen den Pflanzen und den Saftlingpilzen existiert. Der Artenreichtum der Hygrocybe war mit der Pflanzenartenvielfalt signifikant positiv korreliert, obwohl die Beziehung nicht stark war (r2=0.14). Die Artenzusammensetzungen der Pflanzen und Hygrocybe waren signifikant geschachtelt, d. h. artenarme Standorte enthielten einen Teil der Arten artenreicher Standorte, und lässt vermuten, dass seltene Arten vor allem an den artenreichen Standorten vorkommen. Eine Analyse der Artenähnlichkeiten zwischen den Grünlandstandorten zeigte, dass es nur eine geringe Überlappung zwischen den Artenzusammensetzungen der Pflanzen und den Hygrocybe gibt. Dies zeigt, dass Entscheidungen, die ausschließlich aufgrund der Pflanzen getroffen werden, die Anforderungen der Hygrocybe-Arten nicht erfüllen. Die Schlussfolgerung ist, dass es eine geringe Kongruenz zwischen der Pflanzen- und Hygrocybe-Artendiversität gibt und Pflanzen eine wenig geeignete Ersatzgruppe für Hygrocybe-Pilze und wahrscheinlich auch für andere Grünlandpilze sind.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 9, no 5, 514-522 p.
Keyword [en]
Biodiversity, BINMATNEST, Fungi, Jaccard similarity index, Nested subset, RANDNEST, Species richness, Surrogate species
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23025DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2007.11.006OAI: diva2:189933
Available from: 2006-11-23 Created: 2006-11-23 Last updated: 2011-03-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biological diversity values in semi-natural grasslands: indicators, landscape context and restoration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biological diversity values in semi-natural grasslands: indicators, landscape context and restoration
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Semi-natural grasslands, which are a declining and fragmented habitat in Europe, contain a high biodiversity, and are therefore of interest to conservation. This thesis examines how plant diversity is influenced by the landscape context, and how plant and fungal diversity can be targeted by practical conservation using indicator species and congruence between species groups. Reproduction and recruitment of the dioecious herb Antennaria dioica was also investigated, providing a case study on how fragmentation and habitat degradation may affect grassland plants.

Grassland size and heterogeneity were of greater importance for plant diversity in semi-natural grassland, than present or historical connectivity to other grasslands, or landscape characteristics. Larger grasslands were more heterogeneous than smaller grasslands, being the likely reason for the species-area relationship.

A detailed study on A. dioica discovered that sexual reproduction and recruitment may be hampered due to skewed sex-ratios. Sex-ratios were more skewed in small populations, suggesting that dioecious plants are likely to be particularly sensitive to reduced grassland size and fragmentation.

A study on indicators of plant species richness, used in a recent survey of remaining semi-natural grasslands in Sweden, revealed several problems. A high percentage of all indicator species were missed by the survey, removing an otherwise significant correlation between indicator species and plant species richness. Also, a null model showed that the chosen indicator species did not perform significantly better than species chosen at random from the available species pool, questioning the selection of the indicators in the survey. Diversity patterns of the threatened fungal genus Hygrocybe were not congruent with plant species richness or composition. Plants are thus a poor surrogate group for Hygrocybe fungi, and probably also for other grassland fungi. Implications from this thesis are that conservation of semi-natural grasslands should target several species groups, and that an appropriate scale for plant conservation may be local rather than regional.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Botaniska institutionen, 2006. 41 p.
Biodiversity, connectivity, Hygrocybe, indicators, landscape history, plants, pollen limitation, species-area effects, surrogate species
National Category
Biological Sciences
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-1352 (URN)91-7155-341-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-15, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 13:00
Available from: 2006-11-23 Created: 2006-11-23Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Öster, Mathias
By organisation
Department of Botany
In the same journal
Basic and Applied Ecology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 44 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link