Ecosystem subsidies to Swedish agricultural consumption, industrial intensification and trade 1962-1994
2005 (English)In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 8, 512-528 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Analysis of food consumption and agricultural production trends in Sweden has focused on domestic food production levels and yields, over looking human dependence on ecosystem support. We estimate the ecosystem areas appropriated (ArEAs) for agricultural production (crop and animal feed production and grazing in arable land and marine production for fishmeal used in ani mal feed) to satisfy Swedish food consumption needs from 1962 to 1994. The total agroecosystem areas worldwide supporting Swedish food con sumption (that is, domestic production less ex ports plus imports) have declined by almost one third since the 1960s as a result of consumption changes and agricultural intensification. By 1994, Swedish consumption of domestic food crops was halved and consumers relied on agricultural areas outside Sweden to satisfy more than a third (35%) of food consumption needs. Surprisingly, 74% of manufactured animal feed ArEAs were from im ported inputs. Moreover, marine ArEAs equal to 12% of the total appropriated areas were needed to support fishmeal usage in animal feed. The results show that domestic agricultural areas do not support Swedish food consumption and that the bulk of manufactured feed used in animal products' production in Sweden is supplied by ecosystems of other nations. These are hidden subsidies of nature, not explicit in Swedish na tional agricultural policy. Sweden must recognize its high level of dependence on the capacity of ecosystems of other nations to supply its food needs. Ignorance of ecosystem support may in crease vulnerability.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer , 2005. Vol. 8, 512-528 p.
agriculture; food consumption; agricultural intensification; ecosystem performance; vulnerability; ecological footprint.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23304DOI: 10.1007/s10021-005-0035-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-23304DiVA: diva2:191266
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-2322004-09-092004-09-092011-01-14Bibliographically approved