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Late Glacial and Holocene sediment sources and transport patterns in the Skagerrak interpreted from mineral magnetic properties and grain size data
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
2006 (English)In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, Vol. 25, no 11-12, 1247-1263 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lateglacial and Holocene changes in circulation, sedimentation and provenance in north-eastern Skagerrak were studied using high-resolution mineral magnetic and grain size data from the 32-m-long IMAGES core MD99-2286. Ages are given in calibrated thousand years BP (‘cal. kyr’). Between 12 and 11.3 cal. kyr, a calving ice front occupied the Oslo Fjord, and sedimentation was strongly influenced by meltwater carrying re-deposited glacial sediments from southern Norway and western Sweden. Between 11.3 and 10.3 cal. kyr, sedimentation was dominated by re-deposited glacial sediments transported by meltwater outflow across south-central Sweden. After the Otteid-Stenselva outlet was closed at 10.3 cal. kyr, glacial marine sedimentation changed to normal marine sedimentation. At 8.5 cal. kyr, a hydrographic shift, marking the onset of modern circulation in the Skagerrak–Kattegat, occurred as a result of increased Atlantic inflow, transgression of former land areas, and opening of the English Channel and the Danish Straits. After 8.5 cal. kyr, sedimentation was governed by input from the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, with varying contributions from the South Jutland Current, Baltic Current, and currents along the coasts of western Sweden and southern Norway. From 0.9 cal. kyr until present, the sedimentation was totally dominated by southern North Sea and Atlantic Ocean sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2006. Vol. 25, no 11-12, 1247-1263 p.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23629DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.11.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-23629DiVA: diva2:193569
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-413Available from: 2005-03-23 Created: 2005-03-23 Last updated: 2010-09-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Holocene and Latest Glacial Paleoceanography in the North-Eastern Skagerrak
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holocene and Latest Glacial Paleoceanography in the North-Eastern Skagerrak
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Detailed information on past oceanographic and climatic changes is crucial for our understanding of natural climate variability and for the assessment of future climate variations. Sediments strongly influenced by the North Atlantic Current accumulate at high rates in the northeastern Skagerrak, forming a potential highresolution archive for information on past climatic and oceanographic processes and events. Through a highresolution, multi-proxy study of the 32 meter long core MD99-2286 from the north-eastern Skagerrak, and interpretation of chirp sonar profiles from the coring area, this thesis provides new and detailed insights about the paleoceanographic development of the eastern North Sea region since the deglaciation.

The chronostratigraphic control of core MD99-2286 relies on 27 radiocarbon dates. Ages are presented in calibrated thousand years before present (abbreviated “kyr”). Core MD99-2286 was correlated to chirp sonar profiles using measured physical properties. This correlation demonstrates that a strong regional acoustic reflector, previously assumed to represent the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, was formed as a result of rapid ice retreat during the latest Pleistocene. Based on the distribution of ice rafted debris in the core, ice berg calving in the Skagerrak ended at 10.7 kyr. Detailed grain-size analyses of the core were interpreted using a novel 3D-visualization technique. Between 11.3 and 10.3 kyr, clay-rich distal glacial marine sediments were deposited in the northeastern Skagerrak, derived from Baltic melt-water outflow across south-central Sweden through the Otteid-Stenselva strait. As a result of differential isostatic uplift, the route of the major outflow and the associated sediment deposition moved southwards along the Swedish west coast. After 10.3 kyr, sediment deposition in the north-eastern Skagerrak gradually adopted to a fully interglacial normal marine sedimentation dominated by Atlantic inflow and the North Jutland Current.

The establishment of the modern circulation system in the eastern North Sea is marked by abrupt coarsening of the sediments in core MD99-2286 at 8.5 kyr. This was a result of increased Atlantic inflow, opening of the English Channel and the Danish straits, and formation of the South Jutland Current. Mineral magnetic properties of the core show a distinct relationship reflecting general sediment source variability. After 8.5 kyr, sediments in the northeastern Skagerrak were derived predominantly from the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, with varying contributions from the South Jutland Current, the Baltic Current, and the currents along the coasts of western Sweden and southern Norway. Between 6.3 and 3.8 kyr, the eastern North Sea was further developed towards the modern situation by an increase of the South Jutland Current flow. The Skagerrak bottom currents were probably forced by strong Atlantic water inflow between 0.9 and 0.5 kyr, and after that by increased wind stress. The influence of regional climate on the eastern North Sea circulation has increased since the middle of the Holocene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för geologi och geokemi, 2005. 30 p.
Series
Meddelanden från Stockholms universitets institution för geologi och geokemi, ISSN 1101-1599 ; 322
Keyword
Skagerrak, Holocene, sediment, chirp sonar, grain size, mineral magnetic properties
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-413 (URN)91-7155-038-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-04-15, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8 C, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-03-23 Created: 2005-03-23Bibliographically approved

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