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Human exposure to organohalogen compounds in the Faroe Islands
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic are part of the sub-Arctic region, a remote region far from industrial activity. In spite of this remoteness, the Islands are not a sanctuary: exposures and effects of environmental pollutants mar its natural beauty and wildlife. In the Arctic regions, fish, sea mammals and seabirds have shown to contain elevated levels of the classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as more recent POPs such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Human populations living in the Arctic regions are usually highly dependent on seafood and seabirds as food sources, and diet becomes their major source of exposures to POPs. As reported in the 1980’s, residents of the Faroe Islands were shown to have high concentrations of organohalogen substances (OHS) in their breast milk. Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat have been shown to be a major source of OHS exposure for some of the Faroe Islanders.

The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the sources and concentrations of some POPs and their metabolites for the Faroese population. First, human milk and serum from pregnant women (mothers) and children were analyzed for PBDEs, PCBs, and polychlorinated biphenylols (OH-PCB), the major PCB metabolites. Second, POPs were measured in seabirds, i.e. PCBs in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and guillemots (Uria algae), and PBDEs in fulmars to search for other potential sources of POPs exposure.

The results reinforce previous findings that part of the Faroe Island population is highly exposed to OHS. Median concentrations (430 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) of CB-153) in maternal serum (1994-95) are among the highest in the world. Serum concentrations of CB-153 in children (age 7, samples collected in the early 2000’s) were approximately 90% of those in the mothers, sampled 1994-95. Similarly high CB-153 concentrations (380 ng/g l.w.) were measured in samples of mother’s milk, collected in 1999. The OH-PCB concentrations were also high in segments of the population, with 2.9 ng/g fresh weight as the sum of five OH-PCBs. Except for 4-OH-CB107, concentrations of OH-PCBs were generally lower in children than in mothers.

The ΣPBDE median concentrations in maternal serum and human milk (1999) are at the higher end of those reported in Europe, with levels of 9.5 and 8.2 ng/g l.w. respectively. ΣPBDE levels increase in human milk samples collected at three different time points (1987-1999), mainly due to increasing BDE-153 concentrations. The range of serum ΣPBDE concentrations in mothers and children are similar, although the congener patterns show differences. BDE-47 is the dominant congener in maternal serum, while BDE-153 is the major congener in children. The differences seen in PBDE congener patterns may arise differences in dates of sampling (7 years) for the two populations, maternal serum sampled in 1994-95 and children serum sampled in 2000-01, rather than from differences in uptake/metabolism or in contemporary exposures.

PCB concentrations in fulmars and pilot whales show similar ranges. In contrast, PBDE concentrations are 100 times higher in pilot whales than in fulmars. Consequently, Faroese may be especially exposed to PCBs via consumption of fulmars and fulmar eggs, while the exposure to PBDEs is less pronounced.

Results from this thesis highlight the pronounced exposures to PCBs, OH-PCBs, and PBDEs among residents of the Faroe Islands, a remote region in the Northern Atlantic far away from industrial and urban sources of pollution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi , 2005. , 51 p.
Keyword [en]
PCB, PBDE, OH-PCB, human serum
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-428ISBN: 91-7155-028-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-428DiVA: diva2:193755
Public defence
2005-04-22, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-03-31 Created: 2005-03-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites and PCBs in Serum from Pregnant Faroese Women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites and PCBs in Serum from Pregnant Faroese Women
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2002 In: Environ. Health Perspect., ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 110, no 9, 895-899 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23650 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-428Available from: 2005-03-31 Created: 2005-03-31Bibliographically approved
2. Assessment of PBDEs, PCBs and OH-PCBs in Faroese mothers 1994 and their children seven years later
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of PBDEs, PCBs and OH-PCBs in Faroese mothers 1994 and their children seven years later
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23651 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-428Available from: 2005-03-31 Created: 2005-03-31 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands
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2005 (English)In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 4, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs), the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment.

Methods

We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber). In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Results

Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners). The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat.

Conclusion

Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23652 (URN)10.1186%2F1476-069X-4-12 (DOI)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-428Available from: 2005-03-31 Created: 2005-03-31 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands
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2005 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 60, no 7, 836-843 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The observed high-level burdens of organohalogens among the residents of the Faroe Islands, needs to be explained. Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat are known sources of environmental exposure. The present study focus on the organohalogen contamination of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The compounds quantified in fulmar muscle, fat, and egg are PCBs, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating pollutants are the 4,4′-DDT metabolite 4,4′-DDE and the two PCB congeners, CB-153 and CB-180, which are present in geometric mean concentrations of 7100, 4700 and 2500 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.), respectively, in adult fulmar muscle. 4,4′-DDT and HCB concentrations are approximately 250 ng/g l.w., each. Concentrations in the eggs are about 50% of the fulmar muscle levels, due to differences in lipid amounts, 4% in muscle and 10% in the eggs, the exposure contribution on a fresh weight basis is almost the same. As a result, both the egg and the adult fulmar muscle may lead to a significant exposure risk, if consumed by humans.

BDE-153, the most abundant PBDE congener in fulmar muscle, with a geometric mean concentration of 6.5 ng/g l.w., is much lower than the individual PCB congeners and 4,4′-DDE concentrations. In the adult fulmar muscle, the relative PBDE congener pattern is different from that previously observed in biota, with BDE-153 and BDE-154 as the dominating congeners, rather than BDE-47. In contrast, BDE-47 is the most abundant congener in juvenile muscle and subcutaneous fat. The ∑PBDE concentrations are almost the same in egg, muscle (adult and juvenile) and subcutaneous fat (juvenile). For the polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) the concentrations are considerably higher in the adult bird and egg than in the juvenile bird; this is also seen for the PCB and 4,4′-DDE concentrations.

PCB concentrations found in fulmar egg and muscle are in the same range as seen in the pilot whale, i.e. 590–5700 ng/g l.w. for CB-153. Hence humans are also exposed to PCBs at a reasonable degree via intake of fulmar and/or fulmar egg and not only via pilot whale blubber.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2005
Keyword
PBDE; PCB; Egg; Muscle
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23653 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.065 (DOI)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-428Available from: 2005-03-31 Created: 2005-03-31 Last updated: 2010-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites in Non-hatched Fulmar Eggs from the Faroe Islands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites in Non-hatched Fulmar Eggs from the Faroe Islands
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2005 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 3, no 34, 184-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thirty-six polychlorinated biphenylols (OH-PCBs) conge-ners were characterized in Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs collected from the Faroe Islands. The seven most abundant congeners were quantified in 19 samples, and the XOH-PCB concentrations ranged between 0.92 and 4.0 ng g 1 fresh weight (f.w.). These eggs constitute a part of the traditional diet for at least a part of the population on the Faroe Islands and may contribute to the high levels of these contaminants found in the blood of pregnant Faroese women. Because the metabolites are present in the nonhatched fulmar egg, it is concluded that the OH-PCBs are transferred to the egg before laying. High levels, 3300- 18 000 ng g-1 l.w., of 2polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were determined in the fulmar eggs, which are a consider-able source for human exposure. The high PCB levels are a source for metabolic formation of hydroxylated PCBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Allen Press, 2005
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23654 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-428Available from: 2005-03-31 Created: 2005-03-31 Last updated: 2011-01-18Bibliographically approved

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