Chloride Channels and Brown Fat Cells
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Chloride ion channels are macromolecular pores providing for passage of chloride ions (and certain other inorganic and organic anions) through the cell membrane, down their electrochemical gradients. Chloride channels are differentially expressed in various cells, to best suit specific cellular activities. They are present in practically all living cells, and regardless of cell specialization they play an important role in vital housekeeping functions of cell-volume and pH regulation and in membrane potential stabilization. Regulation of cell volume underlies the structural integrity and constancy of the intracellular milieu. A variety of metabolic pathways have been shown to be sensitive to cell volume, and alterations of cell volume and osmoregulation processes can influence various intracellular signaling and organizing factors.
Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are believed to play a pivotal role in cell-volume regulating processes. In this report I present data from macroscopic patch-clamp studies of VRACs performed in a fibroblast cell line and from single channel studies of chloride channels (tentatively related to VRACs) in mouse brown adipocytes in primary culture.
One of the characteristic features of the VRACs is their dependence on the presence of cytoplasmic ATP. In whole-cell experiments, removal of ATP from the pipette solution almost completely prevented activation of VRACs, whereas substitution of ATP with the nonhydrolyzable analog ATPγS did not alter the activation of VRACs. The inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) tyrphostin A25 and B46 depressed VRAC currents in both cases (ATP and ATPγS), but a PTK ineffective analog (tyrphostin A1) did not affect VRAC currents. We infer that in the cell preparation we used, ATP has a dual role in VRAC regulation: it is required for channel-protein phosphorylation and it can influence channel activity through non-hydrolytic binding in a ligand-receptor manner. It can additionally be suggested that tyrosine-specific protein kinases can be involved in the regulation of VRACs, independently of the effects of ATP. We also studied cell cycle-related changes in activation of VRACs by osmotic swelling of cells chemically arrested at different phases of the cell cycle. We found no significant changes during most of the cell cycle, except short periods before and after mitosis and in the quiescent G0 state.
The single Cl- channels of brown adipocytes resemble in their electrophysiological phenotype outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs). We investigated the sensitivity of these channels to intracellular Ca2+. It appeared that the commonly used Ca2+-chelators EGTA and BAPTA could influence the ORCCs currents by themselves, independently of their calcium chelating effects. In some channels, these chelators induced classical flickery-type block of activity, whereas in others there was quasi-blockage, i.e. a peculiar combination of flickery blockage and overall channel activation. The chloride channel blocking agents DIDS and SITS mimicked the true/quasi blockage of EGTA and BAPTA. These phenomena add to the structure-function characteristics of the ORCC molecule. Moderate inhibitory effect of Ca2+ within a physiological range of intracellular concentrations (sub-µM) was also detected; however, the biological relevance of this observation, as well as of these Cl- channels in general, remains to be clarified.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Wenner-Grens institut för experimentell biologi , 2005. , 76 p.
Chloride channel, BAPTA, EGTA, Ca
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-474ISBN: 91-7155-044-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-474DiVA: diva2:194351
2005-05-12, sal E306, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 14-18, Stockholm, 10:00
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