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Toxicological and Chemical Characterization of Organic Pollutants with Potential to Adversely Affect Fish
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several investigations have described adverse effects in fish inhabiting polluted areas, though the causative, or aetiologic compounds have not been substantiated. Since environmental pollutants exist as complex mixtures, reliable risk estimations are difficult to obtain. Chemical analyses of known toxicants are not sufficient since unknown toxic compounds will not be identified. Diagnostic tools – biomarkers – will provide information on the potential toxicity, but only limited information on the aetiologic compounds. A promising strategy for pinpointing the major toxicants in environmental samples is to fractionate samples in several steps, guided by the toxicity of the isolated fractions. This enables a more precise identification of aetiologic compounds than the analysis of a non-fractionated sample.

The present thesis describes the toxicological and chemical characterization of organic pollutants in the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted bay Örserumsviken on Sweden’s Baltic coast. Compounds in organic extracts of abiotic matrices collected in the bay were separated by degree of aromaticity prior to exposing early life-stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fraction containing PCBs and other dicyclic aromatic compounds (DACs) was less potentially toxic than the fraction containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). An estimated 1-5% of the total ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction could be explained by PCBs, and less than 4% by the most commonly monitored PACs. Though the aetiologic compounds were not identified, a significant part of the EROD induction was isolated in a PAC-subfraction containing compounds with more than five rings and the major part of teratogenicity was isolated in a fraction containing three- and four-ringed PACs. As markers for the unidentified potent compounds in the DAC- and PAC-fractions, PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in feral fish eggs from the bay. Adult northern pike (Esox lucius) had elevated levels of hepatic DNA adducts, which correlated with PAH concentrations in their eggs. ΣPCB concentration in pike eggs was equal to the injected concentration in the highest dose of the DAC-fraction, which caused a 50-fold EROD induction in rainbow trout larvae. This demonstrates that the compounds present in the abiotic matrices posed a threat to all life-stages of fish in this area.

The findings in this thesis clearly reveal the limits of our knowledge regarding compounds responsible for potential toxicity in field situations. We need to place greater emphasis on the toxicological and chemical implications of our continuous release of PACs and to work for much more restrictive regulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM) , 2005. , 130 p.
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-510ISBN: 91-7155-068-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-510DiVA: diva2:194833
Public defence
2005-05-28, hörsal 8, hus D, Universitetsvägen 10, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-05-04 Created: 2005-05-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The distribution and relative toxic potential of organic chemicals in a PCB contaminated bay
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The distribution and relative toxic potential of organic chemicals in a PCB contaminated bay
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2005 In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, Vol. 50, no 2, 195-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23836 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-510Available from: 2005-05-04 Created: 2005-05-04Bibliographically approved
2. A Bio-Effect Directed Fractionation Study for Toxicological and Chemical Characterization of Organic Compounds in Bottom Sediment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bio-Effect Directed Fractionation Study for Toxicological and Chemical Characterization of Organic Compounds in Bottom Sediment
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2005 In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, Vol. 84, no 1, 63-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23837 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-510Available from: 2005-05-04 Created: 2005-05-04Bibliographically approved
3. Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment to potential toxicity in early life-stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment to potential toxicity in early life-stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
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2006 (English)In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, no 6, 1320-1333 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a series of bio-effect-directed fractionation experiments, we investigated the potential toxicity of sediment extracts from a contaminated bay. A previous study investigated abnormalities and hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae by exposing newly fertilized eggs to the total extract and to fractions separated by degree of aromaticity. A major part of the potential toxicity was isolated in a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). In this study, we prepared a synthetic PAC mixture with 17 commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts equimolar to those found in the sediment PAC fraction. The 17 PAHs, which included 11 of the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority PAHs, were unable to account for the toxicopathic effects observed and could explain less than 4% of the total EROD induction. The lack of a clear relationship between toxicopathic effects and EROD induction underlines the need for a battery of biomarkers for estimating environmental risk. These results reveal the limits of our knowledge regarding compounds responsible for potential toxicity in field situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NRC Research Press, 2006
National Category
Ecology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23838 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-510Available from: 2005-05-04 Created: 2005-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. The effects of dredging on feral fish: correlation between hepatic DNA adducts and maternally transferred PAHs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of dredging on feral fish: correlation between hepatic DNA adducts and maternally transferred PAHs
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-23839 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-510Available from: 2005-05-04 Created: 2005-05-04 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved

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