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Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins - A new class of marine toxins?
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
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2007 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, 3069-3074 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society , 2007. Vol. 41, no 9, 3069-3074 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24154DOI: 10.1021/es0624725ISI: 000246371100012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-24154DiVA: diva2:196894
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6701Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2011-01-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Brominated natural products at different trophic levels in the Baltic Sea: Identification of polybrominated dioxins, hydroxylated and methoxylated diphenyl ethers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brominated natural products at different trophic levels in the Baltic Sea: Identification of polybrominated dioxins, hydroxylated and methoxylated diphenyl ethers
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Over time, the Baltic Sea has been contaminated by increasing discharges of pollutants from human activities. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have caused toxic effects in wildlife and excess of nutrients have led to eutrophication. Furthermore, there are indications that certain polyhalogenated compounds similar in structure to man-made POPs are produced by the biota present in this sea. In the late 1990’s both methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and hydroxylated-PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) were identified in fish and seals living in this environment. OH-PBDEs can originate from metabolism of PBDEs, but both OH- and MeO-PBDEs are also known to be natural products in marine environments. Another group of POPs, the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), are not produced commercially, but are known to be by-products of chemical industry and of the combustion of, e.g., brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In contrast to the OH- and MeO-PBDEs, PBDDs have not previously been shown to be natural products, although certain related compounds have been indicated to have a natural origin.

This thesis describes the identification of PBDDs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in algae, blue mussels and fish living in the Baltic Sea. Several of these compounds were also detected in cyanobacteria. Moreover, PBDDs were present in fish, mussels, shrimp and crabs from different regions of the Baltic Sea and from the west coast of Sweden, but not in organisms from freshwater environments. The levels of these compounds in Baltic fish generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues. The origin of the PBDDs identified is somewhat unclear, but the high levels present in blue mussels and the pattern of congeners observed indicate natural production. The presence of PBDDs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in fish and shellfish constitutes a potential risk to both humans and wildlife and requires further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi, 2007. 65 p.
Keyword
polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Baltic Sea, algae, natural production
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6701 (URN)91-7155-366-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-03-30, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00
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Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2012-08-09Bibliographically approved

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Malmvärn, AnnaBignert, AndersKautsky, LenaAsplund, Lillemor
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