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Brominated natural products at different trophic levels in the Baltic Sea: Identification of polybrominated dioxins, hydroxylated and methoxylated diphenyl ethers
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Over time, the Baltic Sea has been contaminated by increasing discharges of pollutants from human activities. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have caused toxic effects in wildlife and excess of nutrients have led to eutrophication. Furthermore, there are indications that certain polyhalogenated compounds similar in structure to man-made POPs are produced by the biota present in this sea. In the late 1990’s both methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and hydroxylated-PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) were identified in fish and seals living in this environment. OH-PBDEs can originate from metabolism of PBDEs, but both OH- and MeO-PBDEs are also known to be natural products in marine environments. Another group of POPs, the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), are not produced commercially, but are known to be by-products of chemical industry and of the combustion of, e.g., brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In contrast to the OH- and MeO-PBDEs, PBDDs have not previously been shown to be natural products, although certain related compounds have been indicated to have a natural origin.

This thesis describes the identification of PBDDs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in algae, blue mussels and fish living in the Baltic Sea. Several of these compounds were also detected in cyanobacteria. Moreover, PBDDs were present in fish, mussels, shrimp and crabs from different regions of the Baltic Sea and from the west coast of Sweden, but not in organisms from freshwater environments. The levels of these compounds in Baltic fish generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues. The origin of the PBDDs identified is somewhat unclear, but the high levels present in blue mussels and the pattern of congeners observed indicate natural production. The presence of PBDDs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in fish and shellfish constitutes a potential risk to both humans and wildlife and requires further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi , 2007. , 65 p.
Keyword [en]
polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Baltic Sea, algae, natural production
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6701ISBN: 91-7155-366-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-6701DiVA: diva2:196895
Public defence
2007-03-30, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2012-08-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Hydroxylated and Methoxylated Brominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Red Algae Ceramium tenuicorne and Blue Mussels from the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydroxylated and Methoxylated Brominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Red Algae Ceramium tenuicorne and Blue Mussels from the Baltic Sea
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2005 In: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 39, no 9, 2990-2997 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24151 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6701Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-02Bibliographically approved
2. Identification of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Baltic Sea
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2005 In: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 39, no 21, 8235-8242 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24152 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6701Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-02Bibliographically approved
3. Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in red alga and cyanobacteria living in the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in red alga and cyanobacteria living in the Baltic Sea
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2008 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, no 6, 910-916 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are present in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. OH-PBDEs are known to be both natural products from marine environments and metabolites of the anthropogenic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), whereas, MeO-PBDEs appear to be solely natural in origin. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are by-products formed in connection with the combustion of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but are also indicated as natural products in a red alga (Ceramium tenuicorne) and blue mussels living in the Baltic Sea. The aims of the present investigation were to quantify the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs present in C. tenuicorne; to verify the identities of PBDDs detected previously in this species of red alga and to investigate whether cyanobacteria living in this same region of the Baltic Sea contain OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and/or PBDDs. The red alga was confirmed to contain tribromodibenzo-p-dioxins (triBDDs), by accurate mass determination and additional PBDD congeners were also detected in this sample. This is the first time that PBDDs have been identified in a red alga. The SigmaOH-PBDEs and SigmaMeO-PBDEs concentrations, present in C. tenuicorne were 150 and 4.6ngg(-1) dry weight, respectively. In the cyanobacteria 6 OH-PBDEs, 6 MeO-PBDEs and 4 PBDDs were detected by mass spectrometry (electron capture negative ionization (ECNI)). The PBDDs and OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs detected in the red alga and cyanobacteria are most likely of natural origin.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-14249 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.03.036 (DOI)000257474100009 ()18457860 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-06-27 Created: 2008-06-27 Last updated: 2012-08-09Bibliographically approved
4. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins - A new class of marine toxins?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins - A new class of marine toxins?
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2007 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, 3069-3074 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2007
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24154 (URN)10.1021/es0624725 (DOI)000246371100012 ()
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6701Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2011-01-18Bibliographically approved

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