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Aerosols of Isocyanates, Amines and Anhydrides: Sampling and Analysis
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents methods for air sampling and determination of isocyanates, amines, aminoisocyanates and anhydrides. These organic compounds are generated during thermal degradation of polymers such as polyurethane (PUR) or epoxy.

Isocyanates, amines and anhydrides are airway irritants known to cause occupational asthma. Some of the compounds are listed as human carcinogens. Many workers are exposed.

Isocyanates and anhydrides are reactive and needs to be immediately derivatized during sampling. Methods have been developed for determination of airborne isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and anhydrides using di-n-butylamine (DBA) as reagent to form stabile urea derivatives or amide derivatives. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) enabled detection limits as low as 10 attomoles. A nitrogen-selective LC-detector enabled quantification of DBA-derivatives in reference solutions.

A novel sampler is presented. The sampler consists of a denuder in series with a three-stage cascade impactor and an end filter. The sampler made it possible to reveal the distribution of isocyanates between gas and different particle size fractions. During thermal degradation of PUR, isocyanates were associated to particle size fractions (<1 µm) that may penetrate to the lower airways. The distribution during 8 minutes changes noticeably. Aromatic isocyanates become associated to small particles (<1 µm). As a reference method, air-sampling was performed using an impinger filled with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene, connected in series with a glass fiber filter. There was a good agreement between the denuder-impactor sampler and the reference method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för analytisk kemi , 2007. , 82 p.
Keyword [en]
isocyanate, amine, aminoisocyanate, organic acid anhydride, denuder, impactor, impinger, air sampling, LC-MS, LC-CLND, di-n-butylamine, DBA, thermal degradation, aerosol, particles, TDI, MDI, HDI, ICA, MIC, IPDI, exposure, occupational health
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786ISBN: 978-91-7155-415-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-6786DiVA: diva2:197045
Public defence
2007-05-25, Vita salongen, Hässleholms Kulturhus, Järnvägsgatan 23, Hässleholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Determination of technical grade isocyanates used in the production of polyurethane plastics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of technical grade isocyanates used in the production of polyurethane plastics
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2004 In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, Vol. 6, no 7, 606-614 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24217 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26Bibliographically approved
2. Determination of airborne isocyanates as di-n-butylamine derivatives using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of airborne isocyanates as di-n-butylamine derivatives using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry
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2005 In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, Vol. 534, no 2, 263-269 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24218 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26Bibliographically approved
3. Size-separated sampling and anlysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part I. Denuder-cascade impactor sampler
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size-separated sampling and anlysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part I. Denuder-cascade impactor sampler
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24219 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Size-separated sampling and anlysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part II. Ageing aerosols from thermal degradation of polyurethane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size-separated sampling and anlysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part II. Ageing aerosols from thermal degradation of polyurethane
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24220 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
5. Determination of isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and amines in air formed during the thermal degradation of polyurethane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and amines in air formed during the thermal degradation of polyurethane
2002 In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, Vol. 4, no 2, 216-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24221 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26Bibliographically approved
6. Determination of airborne anhydrides using LC-MS monitoring negative ions of di-n-butylamine derivatives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of airborne anhydrides using LC-MS monitoring negative ions of di-n-butylamine derivatives
2004 In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, Vol. 6, no 7, 624-629 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24222 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-6786Available from: 2007-05-03 Created: 2007-04-26Bibliographically approved

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