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Alternative extraction techniques for analysis of acrylamide in food: Influence of pH and digestive enzymes
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
2006 (English)In: Journal of food science and technology, ISSN 0022-1155, Vol. 39, no 4, 393-399 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Acrylamide in food is normally measured as “water-soluble free acrylamide”. However, it is shown that the technique of extraction, according to the method for extraction of dietary fibres or at high pH can affect the results. This has to be accounted for, particularly in the assessment of exposure and in studies of bioavailability and, in the long term, health risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd. , 2006. Vol. 39, no 4, 393-399 p.
Keyword [en]
Acrylamide; Extraction methodology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24404DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.03.002OAI: diva2:197452
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20 Last updated: 2011-01-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Acrylamide in food products: Identification, formation and analytical methodology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acrylamide in food products: Identification, formation and analytical methodology
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to verify the indicated occurrence of acrylamide formation in heating of food, to identify factors affecting the formation, and to identify important sources of acrylamide exposure from food. As a prerequisite for the studies, gas- and liquid-chromatographic methods with mass spectrometric detection were developed for the analysis of acrylamide in food. The developed methods showed a high correlation coefficient (0.99), high sensitivity and reproducibility. Acrylamide was demonstrated to occur in heated food products, with unexpectedly high levels in potato products (up to mg/kg level in potato crisps) and in beetroot. The identity of acrylamide was confirmed by the developed methods.

With potato as a food model, different factors affecting the acrylamide formation were tested. It was shown that the addition of asparagine and fructose, as well as heating temperature and time had a large impact on the formation. Other factors affecting the acrylamide content were pH, addition of other amino acids apart from asparagine, protein and other reducing sugars. No significant effects were observed from addition of neither antioxidant nor radical initiators. It was discovered that acrylamide could be formed during heating of biological materials similar to food, also at temperatures below 100 ˚C. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a fraction of acrylamide evaporates during heating, similar to conditions for cooking in household kitchens, and during dry matter determinations in laboratories (65-130 ˚C). This constitutes an earlier unobserved source of exposure to acrylamide.

The method for extraction of food was studied with regard to yield of acrylamide. It was shown that the yield at pH ≥12 increases 3 - 4 times compared to normal water extraction for some foods products. Extraction at acidic pH or with enzymatic treatment was also tested, showing no effect on yield.

In a study with mice the bioaviability of acrylamide extracted with the normal water extration and at alkaline pH was compared. It was shown that the extra acrylamide released at alkaline pH gave insignificant contributions to the in vivo dose, measured by hemoglobin adducts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi, 2005. 91 p.
Acrylamide, food, analytical methods, measurements in air
National Category
Environmental Sciences
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700 (URN)91-7155-137-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-11-11, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 13:00
Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20Bibliographically approved

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