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Acrylamide in food products: Identification, formation and analytical methodology
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to verify the indicated occurrence of acrylamide formation in heating of food, to identify factors affecting the formation, and to identify important sources of acrylamide exposure from food. As a prerequisite for the studies, gas- and liquid-chromatographic methods with mass spectrometric detection were developed for the analysis of acrylamide in food. The developed methods showed a high correlation coefficient (0.99), high sensitivity and reproducibility. Acrylamide was demonstrated to occur in heated food products, with unexpectedly high levels in potato products (up to mg/kg level in potato crisps) and in beetroot. The identity of acrylamide was confirmed by the developed methods.

With potato as a food model, different factors affecting the acrylamide formation were tested. It was shown that the addition of asparagine and fructose, as well as heating temperature and time had a large impact on the formation. Other factors affecting the acrylamide content were pH, addition of other amino acids apart from asparagine, protein and other reducing sugars. No significant effects were observed from addition of neither antioxidant nor radical initiators. It was discovered that acrylamide could be formed during heating of biological materials similar to food, also at temperatures below 100 ˚C. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a fraction of acrylamide evaporates during heating, similar to conditions for cooking in household kitchens, and during dry matter determinations in laboratories (65-130 ˚C). This constitutes an earlier unobserved source of exposure to acrylamide.

The method for extraction of food was studied with regard to yield of acrylamide. It was shown that the yield at pH ≥12 increases 3 - 4 times compared to normal water extraction for some foods products. Extraction at acidic pH or with enzymatic treatment was also tested, showing no effect on yield.

In a study with mice the bioaviability of acrylamide extracted with the normal water extration and at alkaline pH was compared. It was shown that the extra acrylamide released at alkaline pH gave insignificant contributions to the in vivo dose, measured by hemoglobin adducts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi , 2005. , 91 p.
Keyword [en]
Acrylamide, food, analytical methods, measurements in air
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700ISBN: 91-7155-137-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-700DiVA: diva2:197454
Public defence
2005-11-11, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs
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2002 In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, Vol. 50, 4998-5006 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24401 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Investigations of factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foodstuffs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigations of factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foodstuffs
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2003 In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, Vol. 51, 7012-7018 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24402 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20Bibliographically approved
3. Measurement of evaporated acrylamide during heat treatment of food and other biological materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of evaporated acrylamide during heat treatment of food and other biological materials
2007 (English)In: LWT – Food Science and Technology, ISSN 0023-6438, Vol. 40, no 7, 706-712 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is established that acrylamide could be formed during heating of food products. In the present work we have studied whether the formed acrylamide could evaporate from food at elevated temperatures used in cooking (>160 °C) or used in determination of dry matter in laboratory analysis (ca. 105 °C). It was demonstrated that acrylamide evaporates from food samples during both cooking and temperatures used for drying. Up to ca. 4 μg/m3 could be measured above the fry pan during frying of potato. In parallel we have also studied whether acrylamide could be formed and evaporate during the elevated temperatures of 65–130 °C used for dry matter determinations in other types of samples containing biological material, like agricultural and environmental samples. It was found that acrylamide is formed during conditions for drying of soil, sediment and silage samples, as well as cereals, animal feed, etc. After drying, levels of acrylamide up to about 100 μg/kg were found, e.g. in samples of sediment and sludge. The measurements showed in the food, agricultural and environmental samples tested a minor fraction, roughly estimated to be 0.15–7.2% of the formed acrylamide evaporates at the used elevated temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2007
Keyword
Acrylamide; Food; Air; XAD-7 adsorbent; LC-MSMS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24403 (URN)10.1016/j.lwt.2006.03.006 (DOI)000244176100020 ()
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20 Last updated: 2010-09-13Bibliographically approved
4. Alternative extraction techniques for analysis of acrylamide in food: Influence of pH and digestive enzymes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative extraction techniques for analysis of acrylamide in food: Influence of pH and digestive enzymes
2006 (English)In: Journal of food science and technology, ISSN 0022-1155, Vol. 39, no 4, 393-399 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Acrylamide in food is normally measured as “water-soluble free acrylamide”. However, it is shown that the technique of extraction, according to the method for extraction of dietary fibres or at high pH can affect the results. This has to be accounted for, particularly in the assessment of exposure and in studies of bioavailability and, in the long term, health risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd., 2006
Keyword
Acrylamide; Extraction methodology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24404 (URN)10.1016/j.lwt.2005.03.002 (DOI)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20 Last updated: 2011-01-14Bibliographically approved
5. Comparison of bioavailability from different foods – A study in mice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of bioavailability from different foods – A study in mice
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In: XenobioticaArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24405 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-700Available from: 2005-10-20 Created: 2005-10-20Bibliographically approved

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