Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Synthesis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via symmetrical tetra- and hexabrominated diphenyliodonium salts
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
2009 (English)In: Chemosphere, Vol. 74, no 3, 421-427 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have become widespread environmental pollutants due to their persistence and bioaccumulativeness. Pure authentic PBDE congeners are required for chemical analysis, assessments of their chemical/physical properties and toxicological studies. We here report an improved method for synthesis of authentic PBDE congeners applying bromophenols and symmetrical brominated diphenyliodonium salts as building blocks. Altogether, 13 PBDEs were synthesized of which seven are new. The improved coupling reaction between the bromophenol and the brominated diphenyliodonium salts resulted in enhanced yields for PBDEs substituted with more than six bromine atoms. Also, improvements in iodonium salt synthesis made it possible to synthesize symmetrical hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts for the first time, i.e. 2,2',3,3',4,4'-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'- and 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts and they made it possible to prepare octabrominated PBDEs via the actual coupling method. All synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectra and by their melting points. Also, all products except for the diphenyliodonium salts were characterized by mass spectra in electron ionization mode.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 74, no 3, 421-427 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24738ISI: 000262821800010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-24738DiVA: diva2:198218
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7410Available from: 2008-03-07 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2010-01-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis and characterization of highly polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and characterization of highly polybrominated diphenyl ethers
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) make up an important class of brominated flame retardants. The present production is mainly concentrated to DecaBDE but until recently also a significant production of PentaBDE and OctaBDE took place, leaving us with a large number of different PBDE congeners. The PBDEs have become widespread pollutants abiotically and in biota, particularly in high trophic level wildlife and in humans. Accordingly, pure authentic reference standards have been required to promote high quality exposure assessments of wildlife and humans and analysis of abiotic matrices, to study both chemical and physical properties of the PBDEs and to allow toxicological studies. The objective of this thesis was to develop methods for synthesis of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and to characterize them. Further, some octabrominated DEs were determined with x-ray crystallography. Main focus has been to prepare highly brominated PBDE congeners, i.e. PBDEs substituted with six to nine bromine atoms.

A total number of twenty-three PBDE congeners were synthesized via reduction of decabromodiphenyl ether receiving nonaBDEs; perbromination and bromination of mono- and diaminodiphenyl ethers followed by diazotization of the amino group(s) and reduction of the diazonium ion(s) receiving octaBDEs and nonaBDEs; selective bromination of diaminodiphenyl ethers followed by diazotization of the amino groups and insertion of bromine receiving hexaBDEs and heptaBDEs; bromination of the latter PBDEs giving octaBDEs; and an improved coupling of symmetrical diphenyliodonium salts with bromophenols yielding tetraBDEs to octaBDEs. To enable these compounds to be synthesized three hexabromodiphenyl iodonium salts were prepared: 2,2’,3,3’,4,4’-, 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’- and 2,2’,4,4’,6,6’ - hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts. These iodonium salts are described for the first time which made it possible to synthesize PBDE congeners with 2,3,4-, 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-tribromo substitution in the phenyl rings originating from the diphenyliodonium salts. Among the PBDE congeners 18 are synthesized for the first time. The thesis includes an improved methodology for synthesis of polybromodiphenyl iodonium salts which is based on improved solubilization of both one of the reactants and the product formed. The present work on PBDE synthesis adds useful methods for synthesis of the most highly brominated diphenyl ether congeners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi, 2008. 73 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7410 (URN)978-91-7155-561-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-04, sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 14-18, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-07 Created: 2008-03-06Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

By organisation
Department of Environmental Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 70 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf