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EELS studies of carbide derived carbons
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
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2007 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 45, no 10, 2047-2053 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) have been synthesized from VC, WC, TaC, NbC, HfC and ZrC at T = 1000 °C, and from TiC at T = 700–1200 °C via a chlorination reaction. The CDCs have been studied by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). These studies show that the structures of CDCs are strongly dependent upon the nature of the starting carbide and the synthesis temperature. The structures range from very disordered nanoporous carbon, consisting of randomly curved graphene layers, to compact spherical entities of compactly packed graphitic layers. EELS studies of carbon core-loss spectra show that the relative sp2 content in these carbons varies between 83% and 98%. The low-loss part of the EEL spectra shows that the positions of the π-plasmons and the bulk plasmons are more dependent on the carbide precursor, than the synthesis temperature. The densities of the CDC particles have been estimated using the bulk plasmon positions as well as the sp3 content determined from the C-K edge spectra. The densities calculated from sp3 are close to the pycnometric ones, while the densities calculated from bulk plasmon positions are lower and reflects the nanostructure of CDCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2007. Vol. 45, no 10, 2047-2053 p.
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24745DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2007.05.022ISI: 000249540500017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-24745DiVA: diva2:198239
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis and Characterisation of Carbide Derived Carbons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Characterisation of Carbide Derived Carbons
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) have been synthesised through chlorination of VC, TiC, WC, TaC, NbC, HfC and ZrC at different temperatures. The aim of the investigation was to systematically study changes of structural and adsorption properties depending on the synthesis conditions. CDCs were characterised using nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The studies revealed the CDCs structures to range from amorphous to ordered, from microporous to mesoporous. It was found that structural ordering and porosity can be modified by: i) synthesis temperature, ii) precursor, iii) density and volume of precursor, iv) catalysts, v) incorporation of nitrogen in to carbide structure, and CDCs can be tuned up to the demanded quality. They also exhibited a high potential for methane storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för fysikalisk kemi, oorganisk kemi och strukturkemi, 2008. 82 p.
Keyword
Carbide derived carbons, Gas adsorption, EELS, Raman, Porous carbons
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Structural Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7423 (URN)978-91-7155-589-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13Bibliographically approved
2. Analytical Electron Microscopy Studies for Development of New Carbon Based Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical Electron Microscopy Studies for Development of New Carbon Based Materials
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis presents transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies of new carbon based materials synthesized with two different techniques. In the first project, nitrogen is incorporated into carbon nanostructures by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) to favor the formation of curved and cross-linked structures, ultimately aiming at creating a material with high hardness combined with good elasticity. The second project deals with nanoporous carbon derived from various carbides (VC, WB, NbC, TaC, HfC, ZrC and TiC) synthesized at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1200 °C, ultimately aiming at creating a porous material with large surface area and narrow poor size distribution. In both projects, the results of different synthesis conditions are investigated with the help of high resolution TEM and EELS. Structural and chemical information about the samples is extracted and it is found that it is possible to alter the nanostructure depending on the synthesis conditions. The thesis ends with implementation and evaluation of Gold’s iterative deconvolution method for enhanced energy resolution in EEL spectra. Relevant background about the chemical elements, transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy is included in the introductory chapters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2010. 136 p.
Keyword
TEM, EELS, CNx thin films, Carbide derived carbons, Gold deconvolution, Resolution improvement
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-49549 (URN)978-91-7447-191-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-01-21, sal FA32, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-12-29 Created: 2010-12-15 Last updated: 2010-12-17Bibliographically approved

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