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Synthesis and Characterisation of Carbide Derived Carbons
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) have been synthesised through chlorination of VC, TiC, WC, TaC, NbC, HfC and ZrC at different temperatures. The aim of the investigation was to systematically study changes of structural and adsorption properties depending on the synthesis conditions. CDCs were characterised using nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The studies revealed the CDCs structures to range from amorphous to ordered, from microporous to mesoporous. It was found that structural ordering and porosity can be modified by: i) synthesis temperature, ii) precursor, iii) density and volume of precursor, iv) catalysts, v) incorporation of nitrogen in to carbide structure, and CDCs can be tuned up to the demanded quality. They also exhibited a high potential for methane storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för fysikalisk kemi, oorganisk kemi och strukturkemi , 2008. , 82 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbide derived carbons, Gas adsorption, EELS, Raman, Porous carbons
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Structural Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7423ISBN: 978-91-7155-589-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-7423DiVA: diva2:198244
Public defence
2008-04-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Porosity development along the synthesis of carbon from metal carbides
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2008 (English)In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 113, no 1-3, 14-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) are materials containing a wide range of pore size, their properties and applications being a function of the pore structure. For this reason it is important to find the relationship between synthesis parameters, such as initial carbide and temperature, and resulting structure. In this work, CDCs were prepared from VC, TiC, WC, TaC, NbC, HfC and ZrC at different temperatures and they have been characterized by means of gas adsorption. Nitrogen at −196 °C and carbon dioxide at 0 °C adsorptions were used to obtain structural information such as apparent surface area (SBET), micropore volume (Vmicro) and pore size distribution (PSD). These studies show that these parameters vary strongly depending on synthesis temperature (700–1200 °C) and initial carbide. Since the size of micropores is near the range suggested as being ideal for methane (CH4) storage, the high-pressure methane adsorption at 25 °C was performed to check the possible use of CDCs as storage material. The CH4 adsorption capacity of CDCs can compete with other carbons on a gravimetric basis, though the volumetric one is far from desired due to their low packing density.

Keyword
Carbon derived carbon, N2 adsorption, CO2 adsorption, Methane capacity
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24744 (URN)10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.10.046 (DOI)000257362100003 ()
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. EELS studies of carbide derived carbons
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2007 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 45, no 10, 2047-2053 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) have been synthesized from VC, WC, TaC, NbC, HfC and ZrC at T = 1000 °C, and from TiC at T = 700–1200 °C via a chlorination reaction. The CDCs have been studied by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). These studies show that the structures of CDCs are strongly dependent upon the nature of the starting carbide and the synthesis temperature. The structures range from very disordered nanoporous carbon, consisting of randomly curved graphene layers, to compact spherical entities of compactly packed graphitic layers. EELS studies of carbon core-loss spectra show that the relative sp2 content in these carbons varies between 83% and 98%. The low-loss part of the EEL spectra shows that the positions of the π-plasmons and the bulk plasmons are more dependent on the carbide precursor, than the synthesis temperature. The densities of the CDC particles have been estimated using the bulk plasmon positions as well as the sp3 content determined from the C-K edge spectra. The densities calculated from sp3 are close to the pycnometric ones, while the densities calculated from bulk plasmon positions are lower and reflects the nanostructure of CDCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24745 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2007.05.022 (DOI)000249540500017 ()
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Raman spectroscopy studies of carbide derived carbons
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24746 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7423Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Reverse Monte Carlo studies of nanoporous carbon from TiC
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2005 In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, Vol. 17, 3509-3524 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24747 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7423Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13Bibliographically approved
5. Barrel-like carbon nanoparticles from carbides by catalyst assisted chlorination
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2003 In: Carbon, ISSN 0953-8984, Vol. 41, 1729-1735 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24748 (URN)
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7423Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13Bibliographically approved
6. Carbon hollow nanospheres from chlorination of ferrocene
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon hollow nanospheres from chlorination of ferrocene
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2007 In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, Vol. 19, 2304 -2309 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-24749 (URN)000245900100025 ()
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7423Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13Bibliographically approved

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